**ALFONSO FARINA
**Alenia-Marconi Systems

**MARIA GRECO
**University of Pisa

**In the recent years an abundance of technical papers and
books have been written on several topics of radar signal
processing. The detection of radar targets against ground and
sea clutter is a problem of great interest in the radar community.
The fusion of signals from different radar to improve detection
performance is another relevant topic of research and application.
These are two of several topics that have been extensively
described in the technical literature. Needless to say that the
consultation of technical references plays a key role in the
daily work of researchers and engineers involved in the radar
field. We collected almost 700 references in a single document
to facilitate our work and the work of other colleagues of the
radar community. The collection of references is by no means
exhaustive; the period of screening mainly covers the last two
decades.
**

Manuscript received September 6, 2000; revised January 31, 2000. IEEE Log No. T-AES/ 37/ 1/ 02944. Authors' addresses: F. Gini, M. Greco, Department of "Ingegneria dell'Informazione," University of Pisa, via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy, E-mail: ( f. gini, m. greco @ing. unipi. it); A. Farina, System Analysis Group, Alenia-Marconi Systems, via Tiburtina Km 12.4, 00131 Rome, Italy, E-Mail: (afarina@ aleniasystems. finmeccanica. it).

0018-9251/ 01/$ 10.00 c 2001 IEEE

I. INTRODUCTION This document contains two lists. The second and more important collects the references. They are listed alphabetically in relation to the name of the first author and chronologically for the references pertinent to the same author. Each reference is identified by a label as follows: XYJnm; "XYJ" are the first three letters of the surname of the first author of the reference; "nm" are the last two digits of the year of publication of the reference; sometimes, the identification label of the reference ends with an additional letter a, b, c, :::, to identify one of several references written by the same author in the same year. In the first list, the references are clustered according to the following different topics:

1. Radar clutter modeling, 2. Experimental clutter measurements, 3. Cancellation of non-Gaussian clutter and target detection, 4. Radar signal processing in relation to detection, 5. CFAR detection, 6. Detection with high resolution range radar, 7. Detection in the time-frequency domain, 8. Signal parameter estimation, 9. Adaptive clutter cancellation and target detection, 10. Detection with multistatic radar and detection fusion.

In particular, each topic contains the collection of labels of papers that are related to the topic. The references have been derived by journals, conference proceedings, technical reports, books and Ph. D. dissertations. Here a list of journals, conference proceedings and technical reports that have been consulted.

**Sources of the References: Journals ***IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
*

*Systems, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing,
IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech and Signal
Processing, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, IEEE
Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE
Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, IEEE
Transactions on Information Theory, Proceedings of
the IEEE, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and
Measurement, IEEE Transactions on Communications,
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, IRE
Transactions on Military Electronics.
*

*IEE Proceedings, *Part F: Radar, Sonar and
Navigation, *Electronics & Communication Engineering
Journal *(IEE), *Electronics Letters *(IEE).

*Signal Processing *(Elsevier), *The Annals of
Statistics, Journal of the Optical Society of America
*A, *Microwave Journal, Johns Hopkins Applied
Physics Laboratory Technical Digest, Alta Frequenza,
Rivista Tecnica Selenia, European Transactions on
*

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001 329
1

1
** Page 2**
3

*Telecommunications, Signal *(AFCEA), *Chinese Journal
of Systems Engineering & Electronics, Journal of
Geophysical Research, Journal of the Acoustical
Society of America *A, *Optical Engineering, Advanced
Physics, Optica Acta, Inverse Problems, Journal of
the Society of Industrial Applied Mathematics, Radio
Engineering Electronic Physics, Radio Science, Annales
des Telecomm.
*

**Sources of the References: Conference Proceedings
(specific for radar)
***Proceedings of the IEEE International Radar
Conference, *Washington D. C., USA, 1985, 1990,
1995.
*Proceedings of the IEEE National (USA) Radar
Conference, *1991, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999.
*Proceedings of the IEE International Radar
Conference, *London (UK), 1982, 1987; Brighton
(UK), 1992; Edinburgh (UK), 1997.
*Proceedings of the Colloque International sur le
Radar SEE, *Paris, 1978, 1984; Versailles (France),
1989; Paris (France), 1994, Brest (France) 1999.
*Proceedings of the 1991 Chinese International
Conference on Radar, *Nanjing (China), 1986, Beijing
(China), 1991, 1996.
*Proceedings of the International Symposium on
Noise and Clutter Rejection in Radar and Imaging
Sensors, *Tokyo (Japan), 1984; Kanagawa Science Park
(Japan), 1994; Kyoto (Japan) 1989.
*Proceedings of the International Radar Symposium,
*Bangalore (India), 1983.
*Proceedings of the International Radar Symposium,
*Munich (Germany), 1998.
*EUREL Meeting on Radar and Sonar Signal
Processing, *Peebles (UK), 1998.

**Sources of the References: Conference Proceedings
(not specific for radar)
***Proceedings of the International Conference on
Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, *Atlanta, GA,
1996; Seattle, WA, 1998.
*Proceedings of the International Conference on
Signal Processing, *Beijing (China), 1998.
*Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Higher Order
Statistics, *Lake Tahoe, CA, 1993.
*Proceedings of the Quatorzieme Colloque
GRETSI Symposium on Signal and Image Processing,
*Juan-Les-Pins (France), 1993, 1995.
*Proceedings of the Asilomar Conference on Signals,
Systems, and Computers, *Pacific Grove, CA, 1996,
1997.
*Proceedings of the International Conference on
Acoustic, Speech, and Signal Processing, *Detroit, MI,
1995.
*Proceedings of the European Signal Processing
Conference, *Edinburgh (UK), 1994.
NATO Advanced Research Workshop, on Direct
and Inverse Methods in Radar Polarimetry, Bad
Windsheim (Germany), 1988.

*Proceedings of the AGARD Conference Proceedings,
*1985, 1991.
1989 SBMO International Microwave Symposium,
Sao Paulo (Brazil), 1989.
*Proceedings of the Third Multinational Conference
on Theater Defense Technologies & Applications,
*London (UK), 1990.
*Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Nonlinear
Signal and Image Processing, *Neos Marmaras
(Greece), 1995.
*Proceedings of the 25th European Microwave
Conference, *Bologna, Italy, September 1995.
*Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing
Workshop on Higher-Order Statistics, *Banff (Canada),
1997.
*Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on Information
Sciences and Systems, *Princeton, NJ, 1998.
*Proceedings of the International Geoscience
and Remote Sensing Symposium *(IGARSS), Zurich
(Switzerland), 1986.
*Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on
Signal Processing Applications & Technology, *Boston,
MA, 1995.
*Proceedings of the International Symposium on
Digital Signal Processing, *London (UK), 1996.
*Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Statistical
Signal and Array Processing, *Victoria (Canada), 1992.
*Conference sur l'ondelettes, *Toulose (France),
1992.
*Proceedings of the International Symposium on
Time-Frequency and Time-Scale Analysis, *Philadelphia,
PA, 1994.

**Sources of the References: Technical Reports
**Massachusetts Institute of Technology -Lincoln
Laboratory,
Naval Research Laboratory,
U. S. Army Missile Command,
Defence Research Establishment (Canada),
Rome Laboratory (Rome, New York),
University of Pisa (Italy), University of Rome "La
Sapienza" (Italy).

II. CLUSTERED REFERENCES
**1. Radar Clutter Modeling (Gaussian and non
Gaussian)
**[All99], [Ana95a], [Ana95b], [Ana99], [Arm91a],
[Azz95], [Bak91], [Bar74], [Bar96c], [Bas78],
[Bec73], [Bil96], [Boo69], [Cha90], [Con87a],
[Con87b], [Con91a], [Con94d], [Con97c], [Dia96],
[Del97], [DiB98], [Elt98], [Far85a], [Far94a],
[Far96b], [Fis78], [Fle96a], [Fle96b], [Got94],
[Gue96], [Gui70], [Hay91b], [Hwa90], [Jak76],
[Jak78], [Jak84], [Jak87], [Jak88], [Jia86], [Lee95a],
[Lee95b], [Lee96], [Lee98b], [Lew80], [Li89],
[Lom99a], [Lon74], [Ma96], [Mar90], [Mar92],
[Mar95], [Mid99], [Moo85], [Nar94], [Oli82],

330 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
2

2
** Page 3**
4

[Oli84], [Oli85], [Oli86], [Oli88], [Pee71], [Pic70],
[Pid68], [Pie96], [Pla97], [Pos93], [Pos98a],
[Rag91b], [Raj95], [Ran93], [Ran95a], [Ros74],
[Rom97], [Sek81b], [Sek84], [Sek90], [Shn99],
[Sko90], [Ste91], [Sza76], [Sza77], [Tho86], [Tho91],
[Tri85], [Tri91], [Tri97], [Tru72], [Val71], [Vor96],
[War81], [War82], [War85], [Wat87b], [Wat91],
[Wes97], [Whi94], [Wis78], [Won67], [Wri66],
[Yao73].

**2. Experimental Clutter Measurements and Analysis
**[All98], [Bil87], [Bil91a], [Bil91b], [Bil96],
[Bil98], [Bil99], [Che95], [Con94d], [Con97c],
[DeL82], [Dro94], [Elt98], [Far96b], [Far96d],
[Far97a], [Gia94], [Got94], [Hai91], [Han82],
[Hay91a], [Jak78], [Jao84], [Jes91a], [Jes91b],
[Kel90], [Lee95a], [Lee95b], [Lee96], [Lee97],
[Lee98a], [Lee98b], [Lew80], [Lon83], [Mis97],
[Nar94], [Nes96], [Noh91], [Phi88], [Pid68], [Pla83],
[Pla90], [Pos98b], [Rin97], [Roz96], [Sle94a],
[Sle94b], [Tho94a], [Tri91a], [Tri91b], [Vor96],
[War90], [Wes97a], [Wes97b], [Zou96].

**3. Cancellation of non-Gaussian Clutter and Target
Detection
**[Alu92], [Ana95a], [Ana95b], [Bha97], [Bil97],
[Bir84], [Blu99b], [Blu99c], [Buc96], [Cai92],
[Can86], [Che96], [Con87c], [Con91b], [Con93],
[Con94a], [Con94b], [Con94c], [Con95a], [Con95b],
[Con95c], [Con95d], [Con97a], [Con98a], [Con00a],
[Con00b], [DeA95], [Del95], [Dru97], [Fan84],
[Far86a], [Far86d], [Far87b], [Far87c], [Far87d],
[Far94c], [Far95], [Far96a], [Far96c], [Far98c],
[Far98d], [Gan88], [Ger99], [Gin95a], [Gin95b],
[Gin95d], [Gin97a], [Gin97d], [Gin97i], [Gin98b],
[Gin98c], [Gin98d], [Gin98e], [Gin99c], [Gin99d],
[Gin99e], [Gin00d], [Gol73], [Gol76], [Gor95],
[Gre95], [Gui92], [Hay98], [Hin90], [Hou89],
[Jak91], [Kay89], [Kas87], [Kle90], [Koz97],
[Koz98], [Koz00], [Leu96a], [Lig89], [Lom96],
[Lom97a], [Lom97b], [Lom99b], [Mar84], [Noh93],
[Noh94a], [Pic87], [Ran95b], [Ran97], [Rav92],
[Ric96d], [Sad94], [Sad96], [Sad99], [San88],
[San89a], [San89b], [San92], [San94], [San99],
[Sch76], [Sen90], [Sen91], [Tho94b], [Tru70],
[Tru76], [Tsa99], [Tsi97], [War82], [Wat85],
[Wat87a], [Wat90], [Wat91], [Wat96], [Wil94],
[Won94].

**4. Radar Signal Processing in Relation to Detection
**[Ami94a], [Ami94b], [Bar49], [Bar90], [Bar92a],
[Bar93], [Bar94], [Bel93], [Bha97], [Bos96a],
[Bos96b], [Bos96c], [Bre68a], [Bre68b], [Bul91],
[Bur82], [Col91], [Dad83], [Dad84], [Dad88],
[Dad89], [Dad94], [DiF80], [Ech91], [Far84b],
[Far85a], [Far85b], [Far85c], [Far85d], [Far86b],
[Far87e], [Far88a], [Far89b], [Far90a], [Far90b],
[Far90c], [Far91], [Far92c], [Far94b], [Far96b],
[Far97b], [Far98a], [Far98b], [Far00a], [Fla99],

[Fle96a], [Fle96b], [Fog94], [Ger92], [Ger97b], [Gia90], [Gia92], [Gia98], [Gin00a], [Gra72], [Han98], [Hay82], [Hel84], [Hel95], [Hou87], [Kan86], [Kel60a], [Kel60b], [Kle90], [Leu94], [Lev88], [Li96], [Liu82], [Lop97], [Met85], [Nag96], [Nay96], [Nez96], [Noh94b], [Noh98], [Ozt96], [Pic86], [Pic88], [Poo88], [Por94], [Ran92], [Rih85], [Rih96], [Rom00], [Rze96], [Sad95], [Sch75], [Sch76], [Sch91a], [Sch91b], [Sek81a], [Sel65], [Shn98], [Sko90], [Sto97d], [Swe97], [Toe92], [Van68], [Van92], [Wal90], [Wan94], [Wat90], [Wei91], [Wil99], [Wor68], [XuX97].

**5. CFAR Detection
**[Aal94], [AlH88], [Ami97], [Ana95a], [Ana95b],
[Arm91b], [Bar87], [Bar89a], [Bar89b], [Bar91],
[Bar92b], [Bar97], [Bla88], [Blu96a], [Blu99a],
[Blu00], [Buc85], [Buc96], [Cai92], [Cai94], [Che91],
[Cho93], [Con96], [Con97a], [Con97b], [Con97d],
[Con98b], [Con99], [DeM97], [Dil74], [DiV94],
[Eli90], [Eli92], [ElM94], [ElM95a], [ElM95b],
ElM95c], [ElM95d], [ElM96], [ElM98], [ElM00],
[Far86b], [Far86c], [Far96c], [Far98c], [Fin86],
[Gan88], [Ger93], [Gin93], [Gin95c], [Gin97a],
[Gin97b], [Gin97c], [Gin97f], [Gin98a], [Gin98b],
[Gin98c], [Gin98g], [Gin99b], [Gin99f], [Gin99g],
[Gol73], [Gol88], [Gol90], [Gui92], [Ham00],
[Han80], [Han93a], [Han93b], [Han97], [Hel95],
[Him92], [Hus88], [Hwa91], [Jia00], [Kim93],
[Lev88a], [Lev88b], [Lev90], [Lom95b], [Lom95c],
[Lom97a], [Lon96], [Lop89], [Lop94], [Min90],
[Nag95], [Nit80], [Nit86], [Ozg92], [Pac94], [Pet88],
[Pul00], [Rag92], [Rag95], [Rag96a], [Rav92],
[Ree90], [Ree98], [Ree99], [Ric96d], [Rit86], [Rit89],
[Rit91 ], [Rob92], [Roh83], [Sch69], [Sch71],
[Sch73], [Sch83], [Sch94], [Sek78], [Sho91], [Sko90],
[Ste68], [Tug96], [Une96], [Wan94], [Wat96],
[Web85], [Wei82], [Wil93], [Wil94], [Zha96].

**6. Detection with High Resolution Range Radar
**[Far88b], [Far89a], [Far90d], [Far92a], [Far92b],
[Ger97a], [Gan88], [Gni78], [Hug83], [Rih85],
[Van85].

**7. Detection in the Time-Frequency Domain
**[Bar90], [Bar92a], [Bar93], [Bar94], [Bar96b],
[Blu00], [Pal96], [Ree99].

**8. Signal Parameter Estimation
**[Aba85], [Aba86], [Aba98], [Bar96a], [Bes95],
[Bes96a], [Bes96b], [Bes97], [Bes98a], [Bes98b],
[Bes99a], [Bla94a], [Bla94b], [Car88], [Cho95],
[Cor95], [Dju90], [ElA91], [Fuh91], [GeH97],
[Gia95], [Gin96], [Gin97g], [Gin97h], [Gin98d],
[Gin98f], [Gin99a], [Gin00b], [Gin99h], [Gin00c],
[Ikr98], [Isk99a], [Isk99b], [Jou93a], [Kel61],
[Kel89], [Kha87], [Leu94], [Leu96b], [Li96b],
[Lih98], [Lom94], [Lom95a], [Mic96], [Mic97],
[Nik93], [Nit84], [Pel91a], [Pel91b], [Poo88], [Por94],
[Rag91a], [Sad94], [Sch97], [Sha95], [Sto89a],

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 331
3

3
** Page 4**
5

[Sto89b], [Sto97a], [Sto97b], [Sto97c], [Sto00],
[Swa97], [Swa98], [Zei96], [Zha97], [Zho94],
[Zho95a], [Zho95b], [Zho95c], [Zho95d], [Zho96].

**9. Adaptive Clutter Cancellation and Target Detection
**

[Ayo99], [Ber97], [Ber99], [Bla94b], [Bos95], [Bos96a], [Bos96b], [Bre73], [Bur96], [Cai91], [Cai94], [Con96], [Con98b], [Dad83], [Dad84], [ElA81], [ElA83], [ElA85], [Far83], [Far84a], [Far84b], [Far87a], [Far87e], [Far89b], [Far91], [Far92c], [Fuh91], [Ger90], [Ger91a], [Ger91b], [Ger94a], [Ger94b], [Ger94c], [Ger95a], [Ger95b], [Ger95c], [Ger97b], [Gin95a], [Gin95d], [Gin97d], [Gin97i], [Gin99c], [Gin99e], [Gin99h], [Gin99m], [Gol97a], [Gol97b], [Gol97c], [Gol99], [Hai96], [Hay92], [Hay93], [Hay97], [Hay98], [Jou93b], [Jou94], [Kal92], [Kal95], [Kel85], [Kel86], [Kel89], [Kha87], [Kir94], [Kle83], [Kle98], [Kle99], [Lin99], [McD97], [McD99], [McD00a], [McD00b], [McD00c], [McW96], [Nay96], [Nit84], [Nit90], [Pul99], [Rab99], [Rag95], [Rag96a], [Ree74], [Ree90], [Ree98], [Ric77], [Ric96a], [Ric96b], [Ric96c], [Ric96d], [Ric00a], [Ric00b], [Ric00c], [Rob92], [Sch96], [She98], [Shn91], [Shn95], [Swi98], [Wan90], [Wan91], [War94], [Zha92].

**10. Detection with Multistatic Radar and Detection Fusion
**

[Alh95], [Bar89], [Bar91], [Blu92], [Blu96a], [Blu96b], [Blu97], [Cha86], [Con83], [Con84], [Dad86], [Dra91], [Eli92], [Far84c], [Far86e], [Far87f], [Far00b], [Gan88], [Gin93], [Gin95c], [Gin97b], [Gin97c], [Gin97e], [Gin97f], [Gin98a], [Gin98g], [Gin99b], [Gin99f], [Gin99g], [Han93], [Has93], [Hob89], [Hus94], [Lee89], [Lom95b], [Lom95c], [Lon90], [Lon96], [Mat98], [Pap95], [Rag96b], [Rag99], [Rao97], [Rei87a], [Rei87b], [Swa95], [Sri86a], [Sri86b], [Sri90], [Sri93], [Tan93], [Tho87], [Tho89], [Tho95], [Tsi93], [Une96], [Var97], [Vis97], [Wil94].

III. LIST OF REFERENCES
[Aal89] Aalo, V., Viswanathan, R. (1989)
On distributed detection with correlated sensor:
Two exampl es .
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***25, **(May 1989), 414 421.
[Aal94] Aalo, V., Viswanathan, R. (1994)
Multilevel quantisation and fusion scheme for
the decentralised detection of an unknown
signal.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **141, **(Feb. 1994), 37 44.
[Aba85] Abatzoglou, T. J. (1985)
A fast maximum likelihood algorithm for
frequency estimation of a sinusoid based on
Newton's method.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech and
Signal Processing, ***ASSP-33, **1 (Feb. 1985),
77 89.

[Aba86] Abatzoglou, T. J. (1986)
Fast maximum likelihood joint estimation of
frequency and frequency rate.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-22, **(Nov. 1986), 708 715.
[Aba98] Abatzoglou, T. J., Gheen, G. O. (1998)
Range, radial velocity and acceleration MLE
using radar LFM pulse train.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***34, **4 (Oct. 1998), 1070 1084.
[AlH86] Al-Hussaini, E. K., Ibrahim, B. M. (1986)
Comparison of adaptive cell-averaging detectors
for multiple-target situations.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **133, **(June 1986), 217 223.
[AlH88] Al-Hussaini, E. K. (1988)
Performance of the greater-of and censored
greater-of detectors in multiple target
environments.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **135, **(1988), 193 198.
[AlH96] Al-Hussaini, E. K., El-Mashade, M. B. (1996)
Performance of cell-averaging and
order-statistic CFAR detectors processing
correlated sweeps for multiple interfering
targets.
*Signal Processing, ***49, **2 (Mar. 1996), 111 118.
[Alh95] Alhakeem, S., Varshney, P. K. (1995)
A unified approach to the design of
decentralized detection systems.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31,1 **(Jan. 1995), 9 20.
[All98] Allan, N., Trump, C. L., Trizna, D. B.,
McLaughlin, D. J.( 1998)
Dual-polarized Doppler radar measurements of
oceanic fronts.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **145, **6 (Dec. 1998),
367 373. [All99] Allan, N., Trizna, D. B., McLaughlin, D. J.

(1999)
Numerical comparison of techniques for
estimating doppler velocity time series from
coherent sea surface scattering measurement.
*IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing, ***37, **1 (Jan. 1999), 395 417.
[Alo94] Aloisio, V., Di Vito, A., Galati, G. (1994)
Optimum detection of moderately fluctuating
radar targets.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **141, **3 (June 1994),
164 170. [Alu92] Aluffi Pentini, F., Farina, A., Zirilli, F. (1992)

Radar detection of targets located in a coherent
K-distributed clutter background.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **139, **3 (June 1992),
239 245. [Ami94a] Amindavar, H., Ritcey, J. A. (1994)

Pad΄ e approximations of probability density
functions.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **2 (Apr. 1994), 416 424.
[Ami94b] Amindavar, H., Ritcey, J. A. (1994)
Pad΄ e approximations for detectability in
K-clutter and noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **2 (Apr. 1994), 425 434.

332 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
4

4
** Page 5**
6

[Ami97] Amirmehrabi, H., Viswanathan, R. (1997)
A new distributed constant false alarm rate
detector.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **1 (Jan. 1997), 85 97.

[Ana92] Anastassopoulos, V., Lampropoulos, G. A.
(1992)
A new and robust CFAR detection algorithm.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***28, **2 (Apr. 1992), 420 427.

[Ana95a] Anastassopoulos, V., Lampropoulos, G. A.
(1995)
High resolution radar clutter classification.
In *Proceedings of the IEEE International Radar
Conference, *Washington, DC, (May 1995),
662 667.
[Ana95b] Anastassopoulos, V., Lampropoulos, G. A.
(1995)
Optimal CFAR detection in Weibull clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **1 (Jan. 1995), 52 64.

[Ana99] Anastassopoulos, V., Lampropoulos, G. A.,
Drosopoulos, A., Rey, M. (1999)
High resolution radar clutter statistics.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **1 (Jan. 1999), 43 60.

[Arm91a] Armstrong, B. C., Griffiths, H. D. (1991)
Modelling spatially correlated K-distributed
clutter.
*Electronics Letters, ***27, **15 (July 1991),
1355 1356.
[Arm91b] Armstrong, B. C., Griffiths, H. D. (1991)
CFAR detection of fluctuating targets in
spatially correlated K-distributed clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **138, **2 (Apr. 1991),
139 152.
[Ayo99] Ayoub, T. F., Haimovich, A. M., Pugh, M. L.
(1999)
Reduced-rank STAP for high PRF radar.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **3 (July 1999), 953 962.

[Azz95] Azzarelli, T. (1995)
General class of non-Gaussian coherent clutter
models.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **142, **2 (Apr. 1995), 61 70.

[Bak91] Baker, C. J. (1991)
K-distributed coherent sea clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **138, **2 (Apr. 1991), 89 92.

[Bar74] Barrick, D. E., Headrick, J. M., Bogle, R. W.,
Crombie, D. D. (1974)
Sea backscatter at HF: Interpretation and
utilization of the echo.
*Proceedings of IEEE, ***63, **6 (1974), 673 680.

[Bar87] Barbarossa, S., D'Addio, E., Galati, G. (1987)
Comparison of optimum and linear prediction
techniques for clutter cancellation.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **134, **3 (June 1987),
277 282.
[Bar89a] Barkat, M., Varshney, P. K. (1989)
Decentralized CFAR signal detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***25, **2 (Mar. 1989), 141 149.

[Bar89b] Barkat, M., Himonas, S. D., Varshney, P. K.
(1989)
CFAR detection for multiple target situations.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **136,5 **(Oct. 1989),
193 209.

[Bar90] Barbarossa, S., Farina, A. (1990)
A novel procedure for detection and focusing
moving objects with SAR based on the
Wigner-Ville distribution.
In *Proceedings of the IEEE International Radar
Conference, *Arlington, VA, May 1990, 44 50.

[Bar91] Barkat, M., Varshney, P. K. (1991)
Adaptive cell-averaging CFAR detection in
distributed sensor networks.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **3 (Mar. 1991), 424 429.

[Bar92a] Barbarossa, S., Farina, A. (1992)
Detection and imaging of moving objects
with synthetic aperture radar. Part 2: Joint
time-frequency analysis by Wigner-Ville
distribution.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **139,1 **(Feb. 1992), 89 97.

[Bar92b] Barboy, B., Lomes, A., Perkalski, E. (1992)
Cell-averaging CFAR for multiple-target
situations.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **133, **2 (Apr. 1992),
341 358.

[Bar93] Barbarossa, S. (1993)
Detection and estimation of the instantaneous
frequency of polynomial phase signals by
multilinear time-frequency representations.
In *Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Higher
Order Statistics, *Lake Tahoe, CA, June 1993,
168 172.

[Bar94] Barbarossa, S., Farina, A. (1994)
Space-time-frequency processing of synthetic
aperture radar signals.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **2 (Apr. 1994), 341 358.

[Bar96a] Barbarossa, S., Porchia, A., Scaglione, A.
(1996)
Multiplicative multilag higher-order ambiguity
function.
In *Proceedings of the International Conference
on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ***5,
**Atlanta, GA, May 1996, 3022 3025.

[Bar96b] Barbarossa, S., Lemoine, O. (1996)
Analysis of nonlinear FM signals by
pattern recognition of their time-frequency
representation.
*IEEE Signal Processing Letters, ***3, **(Apr. 1996),
112 115.

[Bar96c] Barnard, T. J., Weiner, D. D. (1996)
Non-Gaussian clutter modeling with generalized
spherically invariant random vectors.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **10
(Oct. 1996), 2384 2390.

[Bar97] Barkat, M., Dib, S. (1997)
CFAR detection for two correlated targets.
*Signal Processing, ***61, **3 (Sept. 1997), 289 296.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 333
5

5
** Page 6**
7

[Bar99] Barkat, M., Soltani, F. (1999)
Cell-averaging CFAR detection in compound
clutter with spatially correlated texture and
speckle.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **146, **6 (Dec. 1999),
279 284.

[Bas78] Basard, R. (1978)
Vegetation clutter Doppler spectrum models.
In *Proceedings of the International Conference
on Radar, *Paris, Dec. 1978, 28 31.

[Bec73] Beckmann, P. (1973)
Scattering by non-Gaussian surfaces.
*IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation,
***AP-21, **2 (Mar. 1973), 169 175.

[Bel93] Bell, M. R., Grubbs, R. A. (1993)
JEM modeling and measurement for radar
target identification.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***29, **1 (Jan. 1993), 73 87.

[Ber97] Berizzi, F., Corsini, G., Diani, M., and Veltroni,
M. (1997)
New time-domain clutter-lock algorithm.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **144, **6 (Dec. 1997),
341 347.

[Ber99] Berger, S. D., Welsh, B. M.( 1999)
Performance of a dual channel matched filter
system.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **4 (Oct. 1999), 1429 1438.

[Bes95] Besson, O., Stoica, P. (1995)
Sinusoidal signals with random amplitude:
least-squares estimators and their statistical
analysis.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***43, **11
(Nov. 1995), 2733 2744.

[Bes96a] Besson, O., Stoica, P. (1996)
Analysis of MUSIC and ESPRIT frequency
estimates for sinusoidal signals with lowpass
envelopes.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **9
(Sept. 1996), 2359 2364.

[Bes96b] Besson, O., Stoica, P. (1996)
Estimation of the parameters of a random
amplitude sinusoid by correlation fitting.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **11
(Nov. 1996), 2911 2916.

[Bes97] Besson, O., Stoica, P. (1997)
Two subspace-based methods for frequency
estimation of sinusoidal signals with random
amplitude.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **144, **4 (Aug. 1997),
169 176.

[Bes98a] Besson, O., Stoica, P. (1998)
Exponential signals with time-varying
amplitude: Parameter estimation via polar
decomposition.
*Signal Processing, ***66, **(1998), 27 43.

[Bes98b] Besson, O., Stoica, P. (1998)
Frequency estimation and detection for
sinusoidal signals with arbitrary envelope: A
nonlinear least-squares approach.
In *Proceedings of the International Conference
on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing,
*Seattle, WA, May 1998, 2209 2212.

[Bes99a] Besson, O., Stoica, P. (1999)
Simple test for distinguishing constant from
time-varying amplitude in harmonic retrieval
problems.
*Transactions on Signal Processing, ***47,( **Apr.
1999), 1137 1140.

[Bes99b] Besson, O., Giannakis, G. B., Gini, F. (1999)
Improved estimation of hyperbolic frequency
modulated chirp signals.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***47, **5
(May 1999), 1384 1388.

[Bha97] Bhattacharya, T. K., Haykin, S.( 1997)
Neural network-based radar detection for an
ocean environment.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **2 (Apr. 1997), 408 420.

[Bil87] Billingsley, J. B., Larrabee, J. F. (1987) Measured spectral extent of L-and X-band radar reflections from wind-blown trees. Project Report CMT 57, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Labs, Cambridge, MA, Feb. 1987.

[Bil91a] Billingsley, J. B., Larrabee, J. F. (1991) Multifrequency measurements of radar ground clutter at 42 sites. Technical Report TR 916, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Labs, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 1991.

[Bil91b] Billingsley, J. B. (1991)
Radar ground clutter measurements and models,
Part 1: Spatial amplitude statistics.
*AGARD Conference Proceedings, *501, Ottawa,
Canada, May 1991, 1 15.

[Bil96] Billingsley, J. B. (1996) Exponential decay in windblown radar clutter Doppler spectra. Technical Report TR 997, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Labs, Cambridge, MA, July 1996.

[Bil97] Billingsley, J. B., Farina, A., Gini, F., Greco,
M. V., Lombardo P. (1997)
Impact of experimentally measured Doppler
spectrum of ground clutter cancellation on MTI
and STAP.
In *Proceedings of the International Radar
Conference, *Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 14 16
Oct. 1997, 290 294.

[Bil98] Billingsley, J. B. (1998)
Measurement of L-band inland water
surface-clutter Doppler spectra for MTI radar.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***34, **2 (Apr. 1998), 378 390.

334 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
6

6
** Page 7**
8

[Bil99] Billingsley, J. B., Farina, A., Gini, F., Greco,
M. V., Verrazzani, L. (1999)
Statistical analyses of measured radar ground
clutter data.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **2 (Apr. 1999), 579 593.

[Bir84] Bird, J., Bridgewater, A. (1984)
Performance of space-based radar in the
presence of Earth clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **131, **5 (1984), 491 500.

[Bla88] Blake, S. (1988)
OS-CFAR theory for multiple targets and
nonuniform clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***24, **6 (Nov. 1988), 785 790.

[Bla94a] Blacknell, D. (1994)
Comparison of parameter estimators for
K-distribution.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **141, **1 (Feb. 1994), 45 52.

[Bla94b] Blacknell, D., White, R. G. (1994)
Optimum classification of non-Gaussian
processes using neural networks.
*IEE Proceedings-Visual Image Signal Processing,
***141, **1 (Feb. 1994), 56 66.

[Blu92] Blum, R. S., Kassam, A. (1992)
Optimum distributed detection of weak signals
in dependent sensors.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***38, **3
(May 1992), 1066 1079.

[Blu96a] Blum, R. S., Qiao, J. (1996)
Thresholding optimization for distributed
order-statistic CFAR signal detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***32, **1 (Jan. 1996), 368 377.

[Blu96b] Blum, R. S. (1996)
Necessary conditions for optimum distributed
sensor detectors under the Neyman-Pearson
criterion.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***42, **3
(May 1996), 990 994.

[Blu97] Blum, R. S., Kassam, S. A., Poor, H. V. (1997)
Distributed detection with multiple sensors: Part
II Advanced topics.
*Proceedings of the IEEE, ***85, **1( Jan. 1997),
64 79.

[Blu99a] Blum, R. S., Zhang, Y. (1999)
Analysis of adaptive matched filter algorithm
for cases with mismatched clutter statistics.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***47, **6
(June 1999), 1715 1721.

[Blu99b] Blum, R. S., Kozick, R. J., Sadler, B. M.( 1999)
An adaptive spatial diversity receiver for
non-Gaussian interference and noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***47, **8
(Aug. 1999), 2100 2111.

[Blu99c] Blum, R. S., Zhang, Y., Sadler, B. M., Kozick,
R. (1999)
On the approximation of correlated
non-Gaussian noise PDFs using Gaussian
mixture models.
Presented at the *Conference on the Applications
of Heavy Tailed Distributions in Economics,
Engineering, and Statistics, *American University,
Washington, DC, June 1999.

[Blu00] Blum, R. S., McDonald, K. F. (2000)
Analysis of STAP algorithms for cases with
mismatched steering and clutter statistics.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***48, **2
(Feb. 2000), 301 310.

[Boo69] Boothe, R. R. (1969) The Weibull distribution applied to the ground clutter backscattering coefficient. U. S. Army Missile Command, RE-TR 69-15, ADA691109, 1969.

[Bos95] Bose, S., Steinhardt, A. O. (1995)
A maximal invariant framework for adaptive
detection with structured and unstructured
covariance matrices.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***43, **9
(Sept. 1995), 2164 2175.

[Bos96a] Bose, S., Steinhardt, A. O. (1996)
Adaptive array detection of uncertain rank one
waveforms.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **11
(Nov. 1996), 2801 2808.

[Bos96b] Bose, S., Steinhardt, A. O. (1996)
Invariant tests for spatial stationarity using
covariance structure.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **6
(June 1996).

[Bos96c] Bose, S., Steinhardt, A. O. (1996)
Optimum array detector for a weak signal in
unknown noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***32, **3 (July 1996), 911 922.

[Bre68a] Brennan, L. E., Reed, I. S., Sollfrey, W. (1968)
A comparison of average-likelihood and
maximum-likelihood ratio tests for detecting
radar targets of unknown Doppler frequency.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-14,
**1 (Jan. 1968), 104 110.

[Bre68b] Brennan, L. E., Reed, I. S. (1968)
Optimum processing of unequally spaced radar
pulse train for clutter rejection.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-4, **(1968), 474 477.

[Bre73] Brennan, L. E., Reed, I. S. (1973)
Theory of adaptive radar.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***9, **(1973), 273 252.

[Buc85] Bucciarelli, T. (1985)
CFAR problems in Weibull clutter.
*Electronic Letters, ***21, **(Apr. 1985), 318 319.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 335
7

7
** Page 8**
9

[Buc96] Bucciarelli, T., Lombardo, P., Tamburrini, S.
(1996)
Optimum CFAR detection against compound
Gaussian clutter with partially correlated
texture.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **143, **2 (Apr. 1996), 95 104.
[Bul91] Bullard, B. D., Dowdy, P. C. (1991)
Pulse Doppler signature of a rotary-wing
aircraft.
In *Proceedings of the IEEE National Radar
Conference, *1991, 160 163.
[Bur82] Burg, J. P., Luenberger, D. G., Wenger, D. L.
(1982)
Estimation of structured covariance matrices.
*Proceedings of the IEEE, ***70, **9 (Sept. 1982),
963 974. [Bur96] Burgess, K. A., Van Veen, B. D. (1996)

Subspace-besed adaptive generalized likelihood
ratio detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **4
(Apr. 1996), 912 927.
[Cai91] Cai, L., Wang, H. (1991)
Performance comparisons of the modified SMI
and GLR algorithms.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **3 (May 1991), 487 491.
[Cai92] Cai, L., Wang, H. (1992)
A persymmetric multiband GLR algorithm.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***28, **3 (July 1992), 806 816.
[Cai94] Cai, L., Wang, H. (1994)
Further results on adaptive filtering with
embedded CFAR.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics
Systems, ***30, **4 (Oct. 1994), 1009 1020.
[Can86] Cantrell, B. (1986)
Radar detection in non-Gaussian, correlated
clutter.
Report 9015, Naval Research Laboratory,
Washington, DC, Nov. 21, 1986.
[Car88] Carlson, B. D. (1988)
Covariance matrix estimation errors and
diagonal loading in adaptive arrays.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***24, **4 (July 1988), 397 401.
[Cha86] Chair, Z., Varshney, P. K.( 1986)
Optimal data fusion in multiple sensor detection
systems.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-22, **(Jan. 1986), 98 101.
[Cha88] Chair, Z., Varshney, P. K.( 1988)
Distributed Bayesian hypothesis testing with
distributed data fusion.
*IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and
Cybernetics, ***18, **(Sept./ Oct. 1988), 695 699.
[Cha90] Chan, H. C. (1990)
Radar sea-clutter at low grazing angles.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **137, **2 (Apr. 1990),
102 112. [Che91] Chen, W. S., Reed, I. S. (1991)

A new CFAR detection test for radar.
*Digital Signal Processing, ***4, **(Oct. 1991),
198 214.

[Che95] Chen, K. S., Fung, A. K. (1995)
Frequency dependence of backscattered signals
from forest components.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **142, **6 (Dec. 1995),
310 305.

[Che96] Chevalier, P., Picinbono, B. (1996)
Complex linear-quadratic systems for detection
and array processing.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **10
(Oct. 1996), 2631 2633.

[Cho93] Cho, C.-M., Barkat, M. (1993)
Moving ordered statistics CFAR detection for
nonhomogeneous background.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **140,5 **(Oct. 1993),
284 290.

[Cho95] Cho, C.-M., Djuric, P. M. (1995)
Bayesian detection and estimation of cisoids in
colored noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***43, **12
(Dec. 1995), 2943 2952.

[Col91] Collot, G. (1991)
Fixed/ rotary wings classification/ recognition.
In *Proceedings of the 1991 Chinese International
Conference on Radar, *Beijing, China, Oct. 1991,
610 612.

[Con83] Conte, E., D'Addio, E., Farina, A., Longo, M.
(1983)
Multistatic radar detection: synthesis and
comparison of optimum and suboptimum
receivers.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **130, **5 (1983), 484 494.

[Con84] Conte, E., D'Addio, E., Farina, A., Longo, M.
(1984)
Survey on multistatic radar detection.
In *Proceedings of the International Radar
Conference, *Paris, May 1984, 444 450.

[Con87a] Conte, E., Longo, M. (1987)
Characterisation of radar clutter as a spherically
invariant random process.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **134, **2 (Apr. 1987),
191 197.

[Con87b] Conte, E., Longo, M. (1987)
On a coherent model for log-normal clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **134, **2 (Apr. 1987),
198 201.

[Con87c] Conte, E., Izzo, L., Longo, M., Paura, L. (1987)
Asymptotically optimum radar detectors in
non-Rayleigh clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **134, **7 (Dec. 1987),
667 672.

[Con91a] Conte, E., Longo, M., Lops, M. (1991)
Modelling and simulation of non-Rayleigh radar
clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **138, **2 (Apr. 1991),
121 130.

[Con91b] Conte, E., Longo, M., Lops, M., Ullo, S. L.
(1991)
Radar detection of signals with unknown
parameters in K-distributed clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **138, **2 (Apr. 1991),
131 138.

336 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
8

8
** Page 9**
10

[Con93] Conte, E., Lops, M., Ricci, G. (1993)
Optimised radar detection in correlated Weibull
clutter.
In *Proceedings of the Quatorzieme Colloque
GRETSI, *Juan-Les-Pins, France, 1993.

[Con94a] Conte, E., Ricci, G. (1994)
Performance prediction in compound-Gaussian
clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **2 (Apr. 1994), 611 614.

[Con94b] Conte, E., Ricci, G. (1994)
Radar detection in K-distributed clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **141, **2 (Apr. 1994),
116 118.

[Con94c] Conte, E., Lops, M., Ricci, G. (1994)
Adaptive radar detection in compound-Gaussian
clutter.
In *Proceedings of the European Signal
Processing Conference, *Edinburgh, Scotland,
UK, Sept. 1994.

[Con94d] Conte, E., Lops, M., Ricci, G. (1994)
Fitting the exogenous model to measured data.
*IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and
Measurement, ***43,5 **(Oct. 1994), 758 763.

[Con95a] Conte, E., Di Bisceglie, M., Lops, M. (1995)
Optimum detection of fading signals in
impulsive noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Communications, ***43, **2/ 3/ 4
(Feb./ Mar./ Apr. 1995), 869 876.

[Con95b] Conte, E., Di Bisceglie, M., Longo, M., Lops,
M. (1995)
Canonical detection in spherically invariant
noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Communications, ***43, **2/ 3/ 4
(Feb./ Mar./ Apr. 1995), 347 353.

[Con95c] Conte, E., Lops, M., Ricci G. (1995)
Asymptotically optimum radar detection in
compound-Gaussian clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **2 (Apr. 1995), 617 625.

[Con95d] Conte, E., Di Bisceglie, M., Lops, M. (1993)
Space-time processing for detection of
range-spread targets in non-Gaussian
environment.
In *Proceedings of the Quinzieme Colloque
GRETSI, *Juan-Les-Pins, France, Sept. 1993,
225 228.

[Con96] Conte, E., Lops, M., Ricci, G. (1996)
Adaptive matched filter detection in spherically
invariant noise.
*IEEE Signal Processing Letters, ***3, **(Aug. 1996),
248 250.

[Con97a] Conte, E., Di Bisceglie, M., Lops, M. (1997)
Clutter-map CFAR detection for range-spread
targets in non-Gaussian clutter. Part II:
Performance assessment.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **2 (Apr. 1997), 442 455.

[Con97b] Conte, E., Lops, M. (1997)
Clutter-map CFAR detection for range-spread
targets in non-Gaussian clutter. Part I: System
design.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **2 (Apr. 1997), 432 441.

[Con97c] Conte, E., Di Bisceglie, M., Galdi, C., Ricci, G.
(1997)
A procedure for measuring the coherence length
of the sea texture.
*IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and
Measurements, ***46, **4 (Aug. 1997), 836 841.

[Con97d] Conte, E., Lops, M., Tulino, A. M. (1997)
Hybrid procedure for CFAR in non-Gaussian
clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **144, **6 (Dec. 1997),
361 369.
[Con98a] Conte, E., Ricci, G. (1998)
Sensitivity study of GLRT detection in
compound-Gaussian clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***34, **1 (Jan. 1998), 308 316.

[Con98b] Conte, E., Lops, M., Ricci, G. (1998)
Adaptive detection schemes in
compound-Gaussian clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***34, **4 (Oct. 1998), 1058 1069.

[Con99] Conte, E., Lops, M., Ricci, G. (1999)
Incoherent radar detection in compound-Gaussian
clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **4 (July 1999), 790 800.

[Con00a] Conte, E., De Maio, A., Galdi, C. (2000)
Signal detection in compound-Gaussian noise:
Neyman-Pearson and CFAR detectors.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***48, **2
(Feb. 2000), 419 428.

[Con00b] Conte, E., De Maio, A., Ricci, G. (2000)
Adaptive CFAR detection in compound-Gaussian
with circulant covariance matrix.
*IEEE Signal Processing Letters, ***7,3 **(Mar.
2000), 63 65.

[Cor95] Corsini, G., Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Verrazzani,
L. (1995)
Cram΄ er-Rao bounds and estimation of the
parameters of the Gumbel distribution.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **3 (July 1995), 1202 1204.

[Dad83] D'Addio, E., Farina, A., Studer, F. A.( 1983)
The maximum entropy method and its
application to clutter cancellation.
*Rivista Tecnica Selenia, ***8, **3 (1983), 15 24.

[Dad84] D'Addio, E., Farina, A., Studer, F. A.( 1984)
Performance comparison of optimum and
conventional MTI and Doppler processors.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-20, **6( Nov. 1984), 707 715.

[Dad86] D'Addio, E., Farina, A. (1986)
Overview of detection theory in multistatic
radar.
*IEE Proceedings, *F,( *special issue on bistatic and
multistatic radar), ***133, **7 (Dec. 1986), 613 623.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 337
9

9
** Page 10**
11

[Dad88] D'Addio, E., Farina, A. (1988)
Digital processor for radar signals which can
perform adaptive suppression of clutter means
of a parametric estimator.
Brevetto di invenzione industriale, 48644 A 84
del 27 Luglio 1984, Italy. United States Patent
4, 742, 353, May 3, 1988. European Patent
Specification, Date of publication 17.04. 91,
Application number 85903359.9, Date of filing
03. 07.85. Patent in Austria, number E 62755 B,
10. 01.92. [Dad89] D'Addio, E., Farina, A., Morabito, C. (1989)

Applications of multidimensional processing to
radar systems.
In *Proceedings of the International Conference
on Radar, *Versailles, France, Apr. 1989, 62 78.

[Dad94] D'Addio, E., Di Bisceglie, M., Bottalico, S.
(1994)
Detection of moving objects with airborne
SAR.
*Signal Processing, ***36, **(1994), 149 162.

[DeA95] De Angelis, R., Farina, A., Zirilli, F. (1995)
The use of perturbation methods in the
problem of radar detection against a K-clutter
background.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **142, **5 (Sept. 1995),
243 251. [DeL82] De Loor, G. P., Hoogeboom, P. (1982)

Radar backscatter measurements from platform
Noordwijk in the north sea.
*IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, ***OE-7, **1
(Jan. 1982), 15 20.
[Del95] Delaney, P. A. (1995)
Signal detection in multivariate class-A
interference.
*IEEE Transactions on Communications, ***43, **2/ 3/ 4
(Feb./ Mar./ Apr. 1995), 365 373.

[Del97] Delignon, Y., Garello, R., Hillion, A. (1997)
Statistical modelling of ocean SAR images.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **144, **6 (Dec. 1997),
348 354. [DeM97] DeMiguel, G., Casar, J. R.( 1997)

CFAR detection for Weibull and other
log-linear tail clutter distributions.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **144, **2 (Apr. 1997), 64 70.

[Dia96] Diani, M., Corsini, G., Berizzi, F., Calugi, D.
(1996)
Ground clutter model for airborne MPRF radars
in look-down search mode.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **143, **2 (Apr. 1996),
113 120. [DiB98] Di Bisceglie, M., Galdi, C. (1998)

Random walk based characterisation of radar
backscatter from the sea surface.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **145, **4 (Aug. 1998),
216 225. [DiF80] Di Franco, J. V., Rubin, W. L. (1980)

*Radar Detection.
*Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1980.
[Dil74] Dillard, G. M. (1974)
Mean-level detection of nonfluctuating signals.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-10, **6 (Nov. 1974), 795 799.

[DiV94] Di Vito, A., Galati, G., Mura, R. (1994)
Analysis and comparison of two order statistics
CFAR systems.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **141, **2 (Apr. 1994),
109 115.

[Dju90] Djuric, P. M., Kay, S. M. (1990)
Parameter estimation of chirp signals.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and
Signal Processing, ***38, **(Dec. 1990), 2118 2126.

[Dra91] Drakopoulos, E., Lee, C. C. (1991)
Optimal multisensor fusion of correlated local
decision.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **4 (Oct. 1991), 593 605.

[Dro94] Drosopoulos, A. (1994) Description of the OHGR database. Technical Note 94 14, Defense Research Establishment Ottawa, Dec. 1994.

[Dru97] Drumheller, D. M., Glasser, M. L. (1997)
Detection of chi-square fluctuating targets in
arbitrary clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **3 (July 1997), 784 794.

[Ech91] Echard, J. D. (1991)
Estimation of radar detection and false alarm
probabilities.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **2 (Mar. 1991), 255 260.

[ElA81] El Ayadi, M. H., Picinbono, B. (1981)
NAR AGC adaptive detection of
nonoverlapping signals in noise with fluctuating
power.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech and
Signal Processing, ***ASSP-29, **5 (May 1981),
952 962.

[ElA83] El Ayadi, M. H., Picinbono B. (1983)
NAR AGC systems for adaptive signal
detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech and
Signal Processing, ***ASSP-31, **(Feb. 1983).

[ElA85] ElAyadi, M. H.( 1985)
Generalized likelihood adaptive detection of
signals deformed by unknown linear filtering in
noise with slowly fluctuating power.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech and
Signal Processing, ***ASSP-33, **2( Feb. 1985),
401 405.

[ElA91] ElAyadi, M. H.( 1991)
NAR estimation of spatial covariance matrices
for adaptive array detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***39, **7
(July 1991), 1682 1690.

[Eli90] Elias-Fust` e, A. R., deMercado, M. G., Davo,
E. R. (1990)
Analysis of some modified ordered statistic
CFAR: OSGO and OSSO CFAR.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***26, **(Jan. 1990), 197 202.

338 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
10

10
** Page 11**
12

[Eli92] Elias-Fust` e, A. R., Broquetas-Ibars, A.,
Antequera, J. P., Yuste, J. C. M.( 1992)
CFAR data fusion center with inhomogeneous
receivers.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***28, **1 (Jan. 1992), 276 285.

[ElM94] El Mashade, M. B., Al-Hussaini, E. K. (1994)
Performance of CFAR detectors for M-sweeps
in the presence of interfering targets.
*Signal Processing, ***38, **2 (July 1994), 211 222.

[ElM95a] El Mashade, M. B. (1995)
Analysis of censored mean-level CFAR
processor in multiple target and nonuniform
clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **142, **5 (1995), 259 266.

[ElM95b] El Mashade, M. B. (1995)
Performance analysis of modified
order-statistics CFAR processors in
nonhomogeneous environments.
*Signal Processing, ***41, **3 (1995), 379 389.

[ElM95c] El Mashade, M. B. (1995)
Performance analysis of modified
order-statistics CFAR processors in
nonhomogeneous environments.
*Signal Processing, ***41, **3 (1995), 379 389.

[ElM95d] El Mashade, M. B. (1995)
Analysis of censored mean-level CFAR
processor in multiple target and nonuniform
clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **142, **5 (1995), 259 266.

[ElM96] El Mashade, M. B. (1996)
Monopulse detection analysis of the trimmed
mean CFAR processor in nonhomogeneous
situations.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **143, **2 (Apr. 1996), 87 94.

[ElM98] El Mashade, M. B. (1998)
Detection analysis of linearly combined order
statistic CFAR algorithms in nonhomogeneous
background environments.
*Signal Processing, ***68, **1 (July 1998), 59 72.

[ElM00] El Mashade, M. B. (2000)
Detection analysis of CA family of adaptive
radar schemes processing M-correlated
sweeps in homogeneous and multiple-target
environments.
*Signal Processing, ***80, **5 (May 2000), 787 802.

[Elt98] Eltoft, T., Ho/ gda, K. A. (1998)
Non-Gaussian signal statistics in ocean SAR
imagery.
*IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing, ***36, **2 (Mar. 1998), 562 575.

[Fan84] Fante, R. L. (1984)
Detection of multiscatter targets in K-distributed
clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation,
***AP-32, **12 (1984), 1358 1363.

[Far83] Farina, A., Studer, F. A., Turco, E. (1983)
Two adaptive methods to implement the
optimum radar signal processor.
In *Proceedings of the International Radar
Symposium, *Bangalore, India, Oct. 1983, 42 47.

[Far84a] Farina, A., Studer, F. A. (1984)
Adaptive implementation of optimum radar
signal processing.
In *Proceedings of the International Radar
Conference, *Paris, May 1984, 93 102.

[Far84b] Farina, A., Studer, F. A. (1984)
Application of Gram-Schmidt algorithm to
optimum radar signal processing.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **131, **2 (Apr. 1984).

[Far84c] Farina, A., Longo, M. (1984)
Detection and tracking performances of
multistatic radar systems: A case study.
In *Proceedings of the International Symposium
on Noise and Clutter Rejection in Radar and
Imaging Sensors, *Tokyo, Japan, Oct. 1984.

[Far85a] Farina, A., Russo, A., Studer, F. A.( 1985)
Advanced models of target and disturbances
and related processors.
In *Proceedings of the International Radar
Conference, *Washington, DC, May 1985,
151 158.

[Far85b] Farina, A., Galati, G. (1985)
An overview of current and advanced signal
processing techniques for surveillance radar.
In *Proceedings of the International Radar
Conference, *Washington, DC, May 1985,
175 183.

[Far85c] Farina, A., Galati, G.( 1985)
Signal processing techniques for surveillance
radar: An overview.
*Microwave Journal, ***28, **6 (June 1985), 133 140.

[Far85d] Farina, A., Galati, G. (1985)
Surveillance radars: State of art, research and
perspectives.
*Alta Frequenza, ***LIV, **4, 1985, 261 277.
(Reprinted in *Radar Applications, *by Merril I.
Skolnik (Ed.), IEEE Press, 1988, paper no. 3. 3).

[Far86a] Farina, A., Russo, A., Studer, F. R.( 1986)
Coherent radar detection in log-normal clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **133,1 **(Feb. 1986), 39 54.

[Far86b] Farina, A., Russo, A. (1986)
Radar detection of correlated targets in clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-22, **5 (Sept. 1986), 513 532.

[Far86c] Farina, A., Studer, F. A. (1986)
A review of CFAR detection techniques in radar
systems.
*Microwave Journal, ***29, **9 (Sept. 1986),
115 128.

[Far86d] Farina, A., Russo, A., Scannapieco, F. (1986)
Radar detection of target signals in non
Gaussian clutter: Theory and application.
In *Proceedings of the Chinese International
Conference on Radar, *Nanjing, China, Nov.
1986, 442 449.

[Far86e] Farina, A., D'Addio, E. (1986)
Overview of detection theory in multistatic
radar.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **133, **7 (Dec. 1986),
613 623.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 339
11

11
** Page 12**
13

[Far87a] Farina, A., Studer, F. A. (1987)
Adaptive radar signal processor for the
detection of useful echo and the cancellation
of clutter.
Brevetto di invenzione industriale, 1170587,
3 Giugno 1987 (Italy). United States Patent
4, 719, 466, 12 Jan. 1988. European Patent
Specification, Application number: 84830330. 1,
date of filing 06.12. 84, date of publication of
patent specification 11.03. 92.

[Far87b] Farina, A., Russo, A., Scannapieco, F.,
Barbarossa, S. (1987)
Theory of radar detection in coherent Weibull
clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **134, **2 (Feb. 1987),
174 190.

[Far87c] Farina, A., Russo, A., Studer, F. A.,
Scannapieco, F. (1987)
Reply to: "On a coherent model for log-normal
clutter."
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **134, **2 (Apr. 1987),
200 201.

[Far87d] Farina, A., Russo, A., Scannapieco, F. (1987)
Radar detection in coherent Weibull clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech and
Signal Processing, ***ASSP-35, **6 (June 1987),
893 895.

[Far87e] Farina, A. (Ed.) (1987)
*Optimized Radar Processor.
*London: Peter Peregrinus Ltd., Oct. 1987.

[Far87f] Farina, A., Visconti, A. (1987)
Classification of radar targets by means of
multiple hypotheses testing.
In *Proceedings of the IEE International Radar
Conference, *London, Oct. 1987, 73 78.

[Far88a] Farina, A., Protopapa, E. (1988)
New results on linear prediction theory for
clutter cancellation.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***24, **3 (May 1988), 275 286.

[Far88b] Farina, A., Scannapieco, F., Vinelli, F. (1988)
Target detection and classification with
polarimetric high range resolution radar.
In *Proceedings of NATO Advanced Research
Workshop on Direct and Inverse Methods in
Radar Polarimetry, *Bad Windsheim, Germany,
Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers,
Sept. 1988, 1021 1041.

[Far89a] Farina, A., Scannapieco, F., Vinelli, F. (1989)
Target detection and classification with very
high range resolution radar.
In *Proceedings of the International Conference
on Radar, *Versailles, France, Apr. 1989, 20 25.

[Far89b] Farina, A. (1989)
An overview of radar detection theory and
applications.
In *Proceedings of the 1989 SBMO International
Microwave Symposium, *Sao Paulo, Brazil, July
1989, 489 506.

[Far90a] Farina, A., Studer, F. A. (1990)
Theater defense radar techniques for detection
and tracking of low-RCS targets.
In *Proceedings of the Third Multinational
Conference on Theater Defense Technologies &
Applications, *London, Jan. 1990.

[Far90b] Farina, A. (1990)
Signal and data processing for radar netting.
In *Proceedings of the IEEE International Radar
Conference, *Washington, DC, May 1990.

[Far90c] Farina, A. (1990)
Electronic counter-countermeasures.
In: M. I. Skolnik, *Radar Handbook *(2nd ed.),
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.

[Far90d] Farina, A., Studer, F. A. (1990)
Detection with high resolution radar: Great
promise, big challenge.
*Microwave Journal, *May 1991, 263 273.

[Far91] Farina, A., Studer, F. A. (1991)
Radar signal processing: A modern perspective.
In *Proceedings of the Chinese International
Conference on Radar, *Beijing, China, Oct. 1991,
1 12.
[Far92a] Farina, A., Studer, F. A. (1992)
Detection with high resolution radar: Advanced
topics and potential applications.
*Chinese Journal of Systems Engineering &
Electronics, ***3, **1 (1992), 21 34.

[Far92b] Farina, A., Studer, F. A., Vitiello, R. (1992)
High resolution radar for enhanced target
detection.
In *Proceedings of the IEE International
Conference, Radar 92, *Brighton, UK, Oct. 1992,
163 166.
[Far92c] Farina, A. (1992)
*Antenna-Based Signal Processing Techniques for
Radar Systems.
*Dedham, MA: Artech House, 1992.
[Far94a] Farina, A., Lombardo, P. (1994)
Modelling of a mixture of K-distributed and
Gaussian clutter for coherent radar detection.
*Electronics Letters, ***30, **6 (Mar. 1994), 520 521.

[Far94b] Farina, A., Barbarossa, S., Ceccarelli, M.,
Petrosino, A., Timmoneri, L., Vinelli, F. (1994)
Application of the extreme eigenvalue analysis
to signal and image processing for radar.
In *Proceedings of the Colloque International sur
le Radar, *Paris, May 1994, 207 213.

[Far94c] Farina, A., Lombardo, P. (1994)
Optimum linear-quadratic system for coherent
radar detection in K-distributed clutter.
In *Proceedings of the International Symposium
on Noise and Clutter Rejection in Radars and
Imaging Sensors, *Kanagawa Science Park,
Japan, Nov. 1994, 61 66.

[Far95] Farina, A., Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Lombardo, P.
(1995)
Coherent radar detection of targets against a
combination of K-distributed and Gaussian
clutter.
In *Proceedings of the IEEE International Radar
Conference, *Washington, DC, May 1995.

340 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
12

12
** Page 13**
14

[Far96a] Farina, A., Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Sangston,
K. J. (1996)
Optimum and suboptimum coherent radar
detection in compound-Gaussian clutter: A
data-dependent threshold interpretation.
In *Proceedings of the IEEE National Radar
Conference, *Ann Arbor, MI, May 1996.

[Far96b] Farina, A., Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Lee, P. H. Y.
(1996)
Improvement factor for real-sea clutter Doppler
frequency spectra.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **143, **5 (Oct. 1996),
341 344.

[Far96c] Farina, A., Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Lombardini,
F., Lombardo, P., Sangston, K. J., Verrazzani, L.
(1996)
Radar detection of targets: New theoretical
findings and results by processing recorded live
data.
In *Proceedings of the International Conference of
Radar, *Beijing, China, Oct. 1996, 5 12.

[Far96d] Farina, A., Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Verrazzani,
L. (1996)
Analysis of sea clutter radar data.
In *Proceedings of the International Conference of
Radar, *Beijing, China, Oct. 1996, 115 118.

[Far97a] Farina, A., Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Verrazzani,
L. (1997)
High resolution sea clutter data: A statistical
analysis of recorded live data.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **144, **3 (June 1997),
121 130.

[Far97b] Farina, A. (1997)
Linear and non-linear filters for clutter
cancellation in radar systems.
*Signal Processing, ***59, **(1997), 101 112.

[Far98a] Farina, A., Valeri, M. (1998)
Recovery of antenna pattern loss in a search
radar.
*Signal Processing, ***65, **3 (Mar. 1998), 329 336.

[Far98b] Farina, A., Gini, F. (1998)
Calculation of blanking probability for the
sidelobe blanking (SLB) for two interference
statistical models.
*IEEE Signal Processing Letters, ***5,4 **(Apr.
1998), 98 100.

[Far98c] Farina, A., Gini, F. (1998)
A matched subspace approach to CFAR
detection of hovering helicopters.
In *Proceedings of the International Radar
Symposium, *Munich, Germany, Sept. 1998.

[Far98d] Farina, A., Lombardo, P., Pirri, M. (1998)
Nonlinear nonadaptive space-time processing
for airborne early warning radar.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **145, **1 (Feb. 1998), 9 18.

[Far00a] Farina, A., Gini, F. (2000)
Blanking probabilities for SLB system in
correlated Gaussian clutter plus thermal noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***48, **5
(May 2000), 1481 1485.

[Far00b] Farina, A., Lombardini, F., Verrazzani, L.
(2000)
Detection fusion from dual resolution collocated
radars.
*Signal Processing, ***80, **5 (May 2000), 803 808.

[Fin86] Finn, H. M. (1986)
A CFAR design for a window spanning two
clutter fields.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-22, **(Mar. 1986), 155 169.

[Fis78] Fishbein, W., Graveline, S. W., Rittenbach,
O. E. (1978)
Clutter attenuation analysis.
Fort Monmouth, NJ, US Army Electronics
Command, *TR ECOM 2808, *Mar. 1967.
Reprinted in *MTI Radar, *D. C. Schleher( Ed.),
Boston, MA: Artech House, 1978.

[Fla99] Flagiello, F., Marano, S., Longo, M. (1999)
Efficient all-sky search of continuous
gravitational waves by locally optimum
detection.
*Signal Processing, ***72, **(1999), 183 192.

[Fle96a] Fleischman, J. G., Worris, M. A., Ayasli, S.,
Adams, E. M., Gosselin, D. R.( 1996)
Foliage penetration experiment. Part II:
Analysis of foliage-induced synthetic pattern
distortions.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***32, **1 (Jan. 1996), 145 155.

[Fle96b] Fleischman, J. G., Worris, M. A., Ayasli, S.,
Adams, E. M., Gosselin, D. R.( 1996)
Foliage penetration experiment. Part III:
Multichannel whitening of SAR imagery.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***32, **1 (Jan. 1996), 156 165.

[Fog94] Fogler, R. J., Hostetler, L. D., Hush, D. R.
(1994)
SAR clutter suppression using probability
density skewness.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **2 (Apr. 1994), 621 625.

[Fuh91] Fuhrmann, D. R. (1991)
Application of Toeplitz covariance estimation to
adaptive beamforming and detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***39, **10
(Oct. 1991), 2194 2198.

[Gan88] Gandhi, P., Kassam, S. A. (1988)
Analysis of CFAR processors in
nonhomogeneous background.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***24, **(July 1988), 427 445.

[GeH97] Ge, H., Tufts, D. W.( 1997)
Cram΄ er-Rao lower bounds on estimating the
parameters of a filtered burst of sinusoid.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **2 (Apr. 1997), 421 431.

[Ger90] Gerlach, K., Kretschmer, F. F., Jr. (1990)
Convergence properties of the Gram-Schmidt
and SMI adaptive algorithms.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***26,1 **(Jan. 1990), 44 57.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 341
13

13
** Page 14**
15

[Ger91a] Gerlach, K., Kretschmer, F. F., Jr. (1991)
Convergence properties of the Gram-Schmidt
and SMI adaptive algorithms. Part II.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **1 (Jan. 1991), 83 91.

[Ger91b] Gerlach, K. (1991)
Convergence bounds of an SMI/ Gram-Schmidt
canceler in colored noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **3 (July 1991), 646 654.

[Ger92] Gerlach, K. (1992)
The effect of I, Q mismatch errors on adaptive
cancellation.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***28, **3 (July 1992), 729 740.

[Ger93] Gerlach, K., Sangston, K. J. (1993)
Robust locally-optimum detection of signals in
dependent noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***39, **3
(May 1993), 1040 1043.

[Ger94a] Gerlach, K. (1994)
A comparison of two adaptive detection
schemes.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **1 (Jan. 1994), 30 40.

[Ger94b] Gerlach, K. (1994)
A mean level adaptive detector using
non-concurrent data.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **1 (Jan. 1994), 258 265.

[Ger94c] Gerlach, K. (1994)
Convergence rate of an SMI canceler in
nonstationary noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **2 (Apr. 1994), 599 604.

[Ger95a] Gerlach, K. (1995)
The effects of signal contamination on two
adaptive detectors.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **1 (Jan. 1995), 297 309.

[Ger95b] Gerlach, K. (1995)
Further considerations of adaptive canceller and
pulse compression interactions.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **1 (Jan. 1995), 310 319.

[Ger95c] Gerlach, K., Lin, F. (1995)
Convergence performance of binary adaptive
detectors.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **1 (Jan. 1995), 329 340.

[Ger97a] Gerlach, K., Steiner, M., Lin, F. C. (1997)
Detection of a spatially distributed target in
white noise.
*IEEE Signal Processing Letters, ***4,7 **(July
1997), 198 200.

[Ger97b] Gerlach, K. (1997)
An adaptive matched filter that compensates for
I, Q mismatch errors.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***45, **12
(Dec. 1997), 3104 3107.

[Ger99] Gerlach, K. (1999)
Spatially distributed target detection in
non-Gaussian clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **3 (July 1999), 926 934.

[Gia90] Giannakis, G. B., Tsatsanis, M. K. (1990)
Signal detection and classification using
matched filtering and higher order statistics.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech,
and Signal Processing, ***38, **7 (July 1990),
1284 1296.
[Gia92] Giannakis, G. B., Tsatsanis, M. K. (1992)
A unifying maximum-likelihood view of
cumulant and polyspectral measures for
non-Gaussian signal classification and
estimation.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***38, **2
(Mar. 1992), 386 406.

[Gia94] Giannakis, G. B., Tsatsanis, M. K. (1994)
Time-domain tests for Gaussianity and
time-reversibility.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***42, **12
(Dec. 1994), 3460 3472.

[Gia95] Giannakis, G. B., Zhou, G. T. (1995)
Harmonics in multiplicative and additive noise:
parameter estimation using cyclic statistics.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***43,
**(Sept. 1995), 2217 2221.

[Gia98] Giannakis, G. B. (1998)
Cyclostationary signal analysis.
In V. K. Madisetti and D. Williams (Eds.),
*Digital Signal Processing Handbook, *Boca
Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1998.

[Gin93] Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Lombardini, F.,
Verrazzani, L. (1993)
Distributed CFAR detection in Weibull clutter.
In *Proceedings of the GRETSI Symposium on
Signal and Image Processing, *Juan-Les-Pins,
France, Sept. 1993.

[Gin95a] Gini, F., Verrazzani, L. (1995)
A HOS technique for coherent radar detection
in mixed clutter environment.
In *Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on
Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing, *Neos
Marmaras, Halkidiki, Greece, June 1995.

[Gin95b] Gini, F., Lombardini, F. (1995)
A novel linear-quadratic technique for coherent
radar detection in mixed clutter environment.
In *Proceedings of the 25th European Microwave
Conference, *Bologna, Italy, Sept. 1995.

[Gin95c] Gini, F., Lombardini, F., Verrazzani, L. (1995)
A robust approach to decentralized CFAR
detection in spiky clutter.
In *Proceedings of the 25th European Microwave
Conference, *Bologna, Italy, Sept. 1995.

[Gin95d] Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Verrazzani, L. (1995)
Detection problem in mixed clutter
environment as a Gaussian problem by adaptive
pre-processing.
*Electronics Letters, ***31, **14 (July 1995),
1189 1190.

342 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
14

14
** Page 15**
16

[Gin96] Gini, F. (1996)
Estimation strategies in the presence of
nuisance parameters.
*Signal Processing, ***55, **2 (1996), 241 245.

[Gin97a] Gini, F. (1997)
Sub-optimum coherent radar detection in a
mixture of K-distributed and Gaussian clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **144, **1 (Feb. 1997), 39 48.

[Gin97b] Gini, F., Lombardini, F., Verrazzani, L. (1997)
Distributed CFAR detection with binary
integration in Weibull clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **2 (Apr. 1997), 396 407.

[Gin97c] Gini, F., Lombardini, F., Verrazzani, L. (1997)
Robust monoparametric multi-radar CFAR
detection against non-Gaussian spiky clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **144, **3 (June 1997),
131 140.

[Gin97d] Gini, F. (1997)
A cumulant-based adaptive technique for
coherent radar detection in a mixture of
K-distributed clutter and Gaussian disturbance.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***45, **6
(June 1997), 1507 1519.

[Gin97e] Gini, F., Lombardini, F. (1997)
Comments on "Optimal multiple level decision
fusion with distributed sensors."
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **3 (July 1997), 1037 1040.

[Gin97f] Gini, F., Lombardini, F., Verrazzani, L. (1997)
An efficient approach to decentralised detection
system optimisation.
*Electronics Letters, ***33, **21 (Oct. 1997),
1818 1819.

[Gin97g] Gini, F., Greco, M. V. (1997)
Variance bounds for parameter estimation in
correlated non-Gaussian clutter.
In *Proceedings of the National Radar
Conference, *Syracuse, NY, May 1997, 25 29.

[Gin97h] Gini, F., Giannakis, G. B. (1997)
Hybrid FM-polynomial phase signal modeling:
Parameter estimation and performance analysis.
In *Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing
Workshop on Higher-Prder Statistics, *Banff,
Alberta, Canada, July 1997.

[Gin97i] Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Sangston, K. J., Farina,
A. (1997)
Coherent adaptive radar detection in
non-Gaussian sea clutter.
In *Proceedings of the 31st Asilomar Conference
on Signals, Systems, and Computers, *Pacific
Grove, CA, Nov. 1997.

[Gin98a] Gini, F., Lombardini, F., Varshney, P. K.,
Verrazzani, L. (1998)
Distributed detection with multiple local free
parameters.
In *Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on
Information Sciences and Systems, *Princeton,
NJ, Mar. 1998, 79 84.

[Gin98b] Gini, F., Farina, A. (1998)
Matched subspace detection of Gaussian signals
in non-Gaussian clutter.
Presented at the *EUREL Meeting on Radar and
Sonar Signal Processing, *Peebles, Scotland, UK,
July 1998.

[Gin98c] Gini, F., Farina, A., Greco, M. V. (1998)
Detection of multidimensional Gaussian random
signals in compound-Gaussian clutter plus
thermal noise.
In *Proceedings of the International Conference
on Signal Processing, *Beijing, China, Oct. 1998,
1650 1653.

[Gin98d] Gini, F., Verrazzani, L. (1998)
Estimation and detection of chirp signals in
compound-Gaussian clutter.
In *Proceedings of the International Conference
on Signal Processing, *Beijing, China, Oct. 1998,
1658 1661.

[Gin98e] Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Farina, A., Lombardo, P.
(1998)
Optimum and mismatched detection against
K-distributed plus Gaussian clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***34, **3 (July 1998), 860 876.

[Gin98f] Gini, F. (1998)
A radar application of a modified Cram΄ er-Rao
bound: Parameter estimation in non-Gaussian
clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***46, **7
(July 1998), 1945 1953.

[Gin98g] Gini, F., Lombardini, F., Verrazzani, L. (1998)
Decentralised detection strategies under
communication constraints.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **145, **3 (Aug. 1998),
199 208.
[Gin99a] Gini, F., Giannakis, G. B. (1999)
Hybrid FM-polynomial phase signal modeling:
Parameter estimation and Cram΄ er-Rao bounds.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***47, **2
(Feb. 1999).

[Gin99b] Gini, F., Lombardini, F., Verrazzani, L. (1999)
Coverage area analysis for decentralized
detection in Weibull clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **2 (Apr. 1999).

[Gin99c] Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Farina, A. (1999)
Clairvoyant and adaptive signal detection
in non-Gaussian clutter: A data-dependent
threshold interpretation.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***47, **6
(June 1999), 1522 1531.

[Gin99d] Gini, F., Farina, A., Lombardini, F. (1999)
Effects of foliage on the formation of
K-distributed SAR imagery.
*Signal Processing, ***75, **2 (June 1999), 161 172.

[Gin99e] Gini, F., Greco, M. V. (1999)
Suboptimum approach to adaptive coherent
radar detection in compound-Gaussian clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **3 (July 1999), 1095 1104.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 343
15

15
** Page 16**
17

[Gin99f] Gini, F., Lombardini, F., Varshney, P. K. (1999)
On distributed signal detection with multiple
local free parameters.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **4 (Oct. 1999), 1457 1466.

[Gin99g] Gini, F., Farina, A. (1999)
Matched subspace CFAR detection of hovering
helicopters.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **4 (Oct. 1999), 1293 1305.

[Gin99h] Gini, F., Michels, J. H. (1999)
Performance analysis of two covariance matrix
estimators in compound-Gaussian clutter.
*IEE Proceedings Part, *F, **146, **3 (June 1999),
133 140.

[Gin00a] Gini, F. (2000)
Performance analysis of two structured
covariance matrix estimators in compound-Gaussian
clutter.
*Signal Processing, ***80, **2 (Feb. 2000), 365 371.

[Gin00b] Gini, F., Montanari, M., Verrazzani, L. (2000)
Estimation of chirp radar signals in
compound-Gaussian clutter: A cyclostationary
approach.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***48, **4
(Apr. 2000), 1029 1039.

[Gin00c] Gini, F., Montanari, M., Verrazzani, L. (2000)
Maximum likelihood, ESPRIT, and
periodogram frequency estimation of radar
signals in K-distributed clutter.
*Signal Processing, ***80, **6 (June 2000),
1115 1126.

[Gin00d] Gini, F., Greco, M., Diani, M., Verrazzani, L.
(2000)
Performance analysis of adaptive radar detectors
against non-Gaussian real sea clutter data.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***36, **4 (Oct. 2000), 1429 1439.

[Gni78] Gniss, H., Krucker, K., Magura, K., Perkuhn,
D. (1978)
Problems of signal processing in a high
resolution radar Synthetic aperture imaging
of rotating targets with narrow band and
braodband signals.
In *Proceedings of the International Radar
Conference, *Paris, France, 1978, 242 250.

[Gol73] Goldstein, G. B. (1973)
False alarm regulation in log-normal and
Weibull clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-9, **1, Jan. 1973.

[Gol76] Goldman, J. (1976)
Detection in the presence of spherically
symmetric random vectors.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-22,
**1 (Jan. 1976), 52 59.

[Gol88] Goldman, H., Bar-David, I. (1988)
Analysis and application of the excision CFAR
detector.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **135, **6 (Dec. 1988),
563 575.

[Gol90] Goldman, H. (1990)
Performance of the excision CFAR detector in
the presence of interferers.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **137, **3 (1990), 163 171.
[Gol97a] Goldstein, J. S., Reed, I. S. (1977)
Reduced-rank adaptive filtering.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***45, **2
(Feb. 1997), 492 496.
[Gol97b] Goldstein, J. S., Reed, I. S. (1997)
Subspace selection for partially adaptive sensor
array processing.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **2 (Apr. 1997) 539 543.
[Gol97c] Goldstein, J. S., Reed, I. S. (1997)
Theory of partially adaptive radar.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **4 (Oct. 1997), 1309 1324.
[Gol99] Goldstein, J. S., Reed, I. S., Zulch, P. A. (1999)
Multistage partially adaptive STAP CFAR
detection algorithm.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **2 (Apr. 1999), 645 662.
[Gor95] Gordon, S. D., Ritcey, J. A. (1995)
Calculating the K-distribution by saddlepoint
integration.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **142, **4 (Aug. 1995),
162 166. [Got94] Gotwols, B. L., Thompson, D. R. (1994)

Ocean microwave backscatter distributions.
*Journal of Geophysical Research, ***99, **C5 (May
1994), 9741 9750.
[Gow99] Gowda, C. H., Viswanathan, R. (1999)
Performance of distributed CFAR test under
various clutter amplitudes.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **4 (Oct. 1999), 1410 1419.
[Gra72] Gray, R. M. (1972)
On the asymptotic eigenvalues distribution of
Toeplitz matrices.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-18,
**(Nov. 1972), 725 730.
[Gre95] Greco, M. V., Gini, F., Farina, A., Lombardo, P.
(1995)
Coherent radar detection of signals with
unknown parameters against a combination of
K-distributed and Gaussian clutter.
In *Proceedings of the GRETSI Symposium on
Signal and Image Processing, *Juan-Les-Pins,
France, Sept. 1995.
[Gue96] Guerci, J. R., Feria, E. H. (1996)
Application of a least squares predictive-transform
modeling methodology to space-time
adaptive array processing.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **7
(July 1996), 1825 1833.
[Gui70] Guinard, N. W., Daley, J. C. (1970)
An experimental study of a sea clutter model.
*IEEE Proceedings, ***58, **4 (1970), 543 550.
[Gui92] Guida, M., Longo, M., Lops, M. (1992)
Biparametric linear estimation for CFAR against
Weibull clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***28, **1 (Jan. 1992), 138 151.

344 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
16

16
** Page 17**
18

[Hai91] Hair, T., Lee, T., Baker, C. J. (1991)
Statistical properties of multifrequency
high-range-resolution sea reflections.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **138, **2 (Apr. 1991), 75 79.

[Ham00] Hamadouche, M., Barakat, M., Khodja, M.
(2000)
Analysis of the clutter map CFAR in Weibull
clutter.
*Signal Processing, ***80, **1 (Jan. 2000), 117 124.

[Han80] Hansen, V. G., Sawyer, J. H. (1980)
Detectability loss due to greatest of selection in
a cell-averaging CFAR.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-16, **(1980), 115 118.

[Han93a] Han, J., Varshney, P. K., Srinivasan, R. (1993)
Distributed binary integration.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***29,1 **(Jan. 1993), 2 8.

[Han93b] Han, D.-S, Lee, H.-S. (1993)
Performance of modified order statistics CFAR
detectors with noncoherent integration.
*Signal Processing, ***31, **1 (Mar. 1993), 31 42.

[Han97] Han, D.-S. (1997)
VLSI architecture for CFAR detectors based on
order statistics.
*Signal Processing, ***62, **1 (Oct. 1997), 73 86.

[Han98] Hanson, G. A., Iltis, R. A., Kenney, C. (1998)
Minimax detection for signals with unknown
parameters.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***34, **4 (Oct. 1998), 1184 1192.

[Has93] Hashlamoun, W. A., Varshney, P. K. (1993)
Further results on distributed Bayesian signal
detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***39, **5
(1993), 1660 1661.

[Hay82] Haykin, S., Currie, B. W., Kesler, S. B. (1982)
Maximum-entropy spectral analysis of radar
clutter.
*Proceedings of the IEEE, ***70, **9 (Sept. 1982),
953 962.

[Hay91a] Haykin, S., Krasnor, S., Nohara, T. J., Currie,
B. W., Hamburger, D. (1991)
A coherent dual-polarized radar for studying the
ocean environment.
*IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing, ***29, **1 (Jan. 1991), 189 191.

[Hay91b] Haykin, S., Stehwien, W., Deng, C., Weber, P.,
Mann, R. (1991)
Classification of radar clutter in air traffic
control environment.
*Proceedings of the IEEE, ***79, **6 (June 1991),
742 772.

[Hay92] Haykin, S., Steinhardt, A. (1992)
*Adaptive Radar Detection and Estimation.
*New York: Wiley, 1992.

[Hay93] Haykin, S., Litva, J., Shepherd, T.( Eds.)( 1993)
*Radar Array Processing.
*Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993.

[Hay97] Haykin, S., Bhattacharya, T. K. (1997)
Modular learning strategy for signal detection in
nonstationary environment.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***45, **6
(June 1997), 1619 1637.

[Hay98] Haykin, S., Thomson, D. J. (1998)
Signal detection in nonstationary environment
reformulated as an adaptive pattern
classification problem.
*Proceedings of the IEEE, ***86, **11 (Nov. 1998),
2325 2344.
[He94] He, Y. (1994)
Performance of some generalised modified
order statistics CFAR detectors with automatic
censoring technique in multiple target
situations.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **205, **4 (Aug. 1994),
205 212.
[Hel84] Helstrom, C. W., Ritcey, J. A. (1984)
Evaluating radar detection probabilities by
steepest descent integration.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-20, **(1984), 624 633.

[Hel95] Helstrom, C. W. (1995)
*Elements of Signal Detection & Estimation.
*Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995.

[Him90] Himonas, S., Barkat, M. (1990)
Adaptive CFAR detection in partially correlated
clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **137,5 **(Oct. 1990),
387 394.
[Him92] Himonas, S., Barkat, M. (1992)
Automatic censored CFAR detection for
nonhomogeneous environments.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***28, **1 (Jan. 1992), 286 304.

[Hin90] Hinich, M. J., Wilson, G. R. (1990)
Detection of non-Gaussian signals in
non-Gaussian noise using the bispectrum.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech
and Signal Processing, ***38, **7 (July 1990),
1126 1131.
[Hob89] Hoballah, I. Y., Varshney, P. K. (1989)
Distributed Bayesian signal detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***35, **5
(Sept. 1989), 995 1000.

[Hou87] Hou, X.-Y., Morinaga, N., Namekawa, T.
(1987)
Direct evaluation of radar detection
probabilities.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-23, **4 (July 1987), 418 423.

[Hou89] Hou, X.-Y., Morinaga, N. (1989)
Detection performance in K-distributed and
correlated Rayleigh clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***25, **5 (Sept. 1989), 634 641.

[Hug83] Hughes, P. K. (1983)
A high-resolution radar detection strategy.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-19, **5 (Sept. 1983), 663 667.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 345
17

17
** Page 18**
19

[Hus88] Hussaini, E. K. (1988)
Performance of the greater-of and censored
greater-of detectors in multiple target situations.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **135, **3 (June 1988),
193 198.
[Hus94] Hussain, A. M. (1994)
Multisensor distributed sequential detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **3 (July 1994), 698 708.

[Hwa90] Hwang, P. A., Shemdin, O. H. (1990)
Modulation of short waves by surface currents:
a numerical solution.
*Journal of Geophysical Research, ***95, **C9 (Sept.
15, 1990), 16311 16318.

[Hwa91] Hwang, J. (1991)
Systolic architectures for radar CFAR detectors.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***39, **10
(Oct. 1991), 2286 2295.

[Ikr98] Ikram, M. Z., Meraim, A., Hua, Y.( 1998)
Estimating the parameters of chirp signals: An
iterative approach.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***46, **12
(Dec. 1998), 3436 3441.

[Isk99a] Iskander, D. R., Zoubir, A. M., Boashash, B.
(1999)
A method for estimating the parameters of the
K-distribution.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***47, **3
(Mar. 1999), 880 884.

[Isk99b] Iskander, D. R., Zoubir, A. M.( 1999)
Estimation of the parameters of the
K-distribution using higher order and fractional
moments.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **4 (Oct. 1999), 1453 1457.

[Jak76] Jakeman, E., Pusey, P. N. (1976)
A model for non-Rayleigh sea echo.
*IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation,
***AP-24, **(1976), 806 814.

[Jak78] Jakeman, E., Pusey, P. N. (1978)
Significance of K-distribution in scattering
experiments.
*Phys. Rev. Lett., ***4, **9 (1978), 546 550.

[Jak84] Jakeman, E. (1984)
Speckle statistics with a small number of
scatterers.
*Optical Engineering, ***23, **4 (July/ Aug. 1984),
453 461.
[Jak87] Jakeman, E., Tough, R. J. A. (1987)
Generalized K-distribution: A statistical model
for weak scattering.
*Journal of the Optical Society of America *A, **4, **9
(Sept. 1987), 1764 1772.

[Jak88] Jakeman, E., Tough, R. J. A. (1988)
Non-Gaussian models for the statistics of
scattered waves.
*Advanced Physics, ***37, **5 (1988), 471 529.

[Jak91] Jakubiak, A. (1991)
Signal detection in non-Gaussian clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **5 (1991), 758 760.

[Jao84] Jao, J. K. (1984)
Amplitude distribution of composite terrain
radar clutter and the K-distribution.
*IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation,
***AP-32, **(Oct. 1984), 1049 1062.

[Jes91a] Jessup, A. T., Melville, W. K., Keller, W. C.
(1991)
Breaking waves affecting microwave
backscatter. 1. Detection and verification.
*Journal of Geophysical Research, ***96, **C11( Nov.
15, 1991), 20547 20559.

[Jes91b] Jessup, A. T., Melville, W. K., Keller, W. C.
(1991)
Breaking waves affecting microwave
backscatter. 2. Dependence on wind and wave
conditions.
*Journal of Geophysical Research, ***96, **C11( Nov.
15, 1991), 20561 20569.

[Jia86] Jiankang, J., Zhongzhi, Z., Zhong, S. (1986)
Backscattering power spectrum for randomly
moving vegetation.
In *Proceedings of the International Geoscience
and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS),
*Zurich, Switzerland, Aug. 1986, 1129 1132.

[Jia00] Jian, G., You, H., Ying-Ning, P. (2000)
Distributed CFAR detector based on local test
statistic.
*Signal Processing, ***80, **2 (Feb. 2000), 373 379.

[Jou93a] Joughin, I. R., Percival, D. B., Winebrenner,
D. P. (1993)
Maximum likelihood estimation of
K-distribution parameters for SAR data.
*IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing, ***31, **5 (Sept. 1993), 989 999.

[Jou93b] Jouny, I., Garber, F. D., Ahalt, S. C. (1993)
Classification of radar targets using synthetic
neural networks.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***29, **2 (Apr. 1993), 336 343.

[Jou94] Jouny, I. (1994)
Description of radar target using the
bispectrum.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **141, **3 (June 1994),
159 163.

[Kal76] Kalmykov, A. I., Pustovoytenko, V. V. (1976)
On polarization features of radio signals
scattered from the sea surface at small grazing
angles.
*Journal Geophysical Research, ***81, **12 (1976),
1960 1964).

[Kal92] Kalson, S. Z. (1992)
An adaptive array detector with mismatched
signal rejection.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronics
Systems, ***28, **1 (Jan. 1992), 195 207.

[Kal95] Kalson, S. Z. (1995)
Adaptive array CFAR detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **2 (Apr. 1995), 534 541.

346 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
18

18
** Page 19**
20

[Kan86] Kanter, I. (1986)
Exact detection probability for partially
correlated Rayleigh targets.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-22, **2 (Apr. 1986), 184 196.

[Kas87] Kassam, S. (1987)
*Signal Detection in Non-Gaussian Noise.
*New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.

[Kay89] Kay, S. (1989)
Asymptotically optimum detection in
incompletely characterized non-Gaussian noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech, and
Signal Processing, *(May 1989), 627 633.

[Kel60a] Kelly, E. J., Reed, I. S., Root, W. L.( 1960)
The detection of radar echoes in noise. Part I.
*Journal of the Society of Industrial Applied
Mathematics, ***8, **(June 1960), 309 341.

[Kel60b] Kelly, E. J., Reed, I. S., Root, W. L.( 1960)
The detection of radar echoes in noise. Part II.
*Journal of the Society of Industrial Applied
Mathematics, ***8, **(Sept. 1960), 481 507.

[Kel61] Kelly, E. J. (1961)
The radar measurement of range, velocity and
acceleration.
*IRE Transactions on Military Electronics,
***MIL-5, **(Apr. 1961), 51 57.

[Kel85] Kelly, E. J. (1985) Adaptive detection in non-stationary interference, Part I and Part II. Technical Report TR 724, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Labs, Cambridge, MA, June 1985.

[Kel86] Kelly, E. J. (1986)
An adaptive detection algorithm.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-22, **1 (Mar. 1986), 115 127.

[Kel89] Kelly, E. J., Forsythe, K. M. (1989) Adaptive detection and parameter estimation for multidimensional signal models. Technical Report TR 724, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Labs, Cambridge, MA, June 1985.

[Kel90] Keller, W. C., Plant, W. J.( 1990)
Cross sections and modulation transfer
functions at L and Ku bands measured during
the tower ocean wave and radar dependence
experiment.
*Journal of Geophysical Research, ***95, **C9 (Sept.
15, 1990), 16277 16289.

[Kha87] Khatri, C. G., Rao, C. R.( 1987)
Effects of estimated noise covariance matrix in
optimal signal detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***35,
**(May 1987), 671 679.

[Kim93] Kim, C.-J., Han, D.-S., Lee, H.-S.( 1993)
Generalized OS CFAR detector with
noncoherent integration.
*Signal Processing, ***31, **1 (Mar. 1993), 43 56.

[Kim95] Kim, C.-J., Lee, H.-S.( 1995)
Detection analysis of a generalized order
statistics CFAR detector for a correlated
Rayleigh target.
*Signal Processing, ***47, **2( Nov. 1995), 227.

[Kir94] Kirsteins, I. P., Tufts, D. W. (1994)
Adaptive detection using low rank
approximation to a data matrix.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30,1 **(Jan. 1994), 55 67.

[Kle83] Klemm, R. (1983)
Adaptive clutter suppression for airborne
phased-array radars.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **130,1 **(Feb. 1983),
125 132.

[Kle90] Kletter, D., Messer, H. (1990)
Suboptimal detection of non-Gaussian signals
by third-order spectral analysis.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and
Signal Processing, ***38, **6 (June 1990), 901 909.

[Kle98] Klemm, R. (1998)
*Space-Time Adaptive Processing, Principles and
Applications.
*The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London,
1998.

[Kle99] Klemm, R. (1999)
Introduction to space-time adaptive processing.
*Electronics & Communication Engineering
Journal, ***11, **1 (Feb. 1999), 5 13.

[Koz97] Kozick, R. J., Blum, R. S., Sadler, B. M. (1997)
Signal processing in non-Gaussian noise using
mixture distributions and the EM algorithm.
In *Proceedings of the 31st Asilomar Conference
on Signals, Systems, and Computers, *Pacific
Grove, CA, Nov. 1997.

[Koz98] Kozick, R. J., Sadler, B. M., Blum, R. S. (1998)
Array processing in impulsive noise: A
nonlinear beamformer based on the EM
algorithm.
In *Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on
Information Sciences and Systems, *Princeton
University, Princeton, NJ, Mar. 1998.

[Koz00] Kozick, R. J., Sadler, B. M.
Maximum-likelihood array processing in
non-Gaussian noise with Gaussian mixtures.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, *tobe
published.

[Lee89] Lee, C.-C., Chao, J.-J. (1989)
Optimum local decision space partitioning for
distributed detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***25, **4 (July 1989), 536 543.

[Lee95a] Lee, P. H. Y., Barter, J. D., Beach, K. L.,
Hindman, C. L., Lake, B. M., Rungaldier, H.,
Shelton, J. C., Williams, A. B., Yee, R., Yuen,
H. C. (1995)
X-band microwave scattering from ocean
waves.
*Journal of Geophysical Research, ***100, **C2( Feb.
1995), 2591 2611.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 347
19

19
** Page 20**
21

[Lee95b] Lee, P. H. Y., Barter, J. D., Beach, K. L.,
Caponi, E., Hindman, C. L., Lake, B. M.,
Rungaldier, H., Shelton, J. C. (1995)
Power spectral lineshapes of microwave
radiation backscattered from sea surfaces at
small grazing angles.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **142, **5 (Oct. 1995),
252 258.

[Lee96a] Lee, P. H. Y., Barter, J. D., Caponi, E., Caponi,
M., Hindman, C. L., Lake, B. M., Rungaldier,
H. (1996)
Wind-speed dependence of small-grazing-angle
microwave backscatter from sea surfaces.
*IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation,
***44, **3 (Mar. 1996), 333 340.

[Lee96b] Lee, P. H. Y., Barter, J. D., Beach, K. L.,
Lake, B. M., Rungaldier, H., Shelton, J. C.,
Thompson, H. R., Yee, R. (1996)
Dependence of polarimetric Doppler spectra on
breaking-wave energy.
In *Proceedings of IGARSS 1996, ***IV, **NewYork,
1996, 2201 2203.

[Lee97] Lee, P. H. Y., Barter, J. D., Beach, K. L.,
Hindman, C. L., Lake, B. M., Rungaldier, H.,
Thompson, H. R., Yee, R. (1997)
Experiments on Bragg and non-Bragg scattering
using single-frequency and chirped radars.
*Radio Science, ***32, **(1997), 1725 1744.

[Lee98a] Lee, P. H. Y., Barter, J. D., Lake, B. M.,
Thompson, H. R. (1998)
Lineshape analysis of breaking-wave Doppler
spectra.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **145, **2 (Apr. 1998),
135 139.

[Lee98b] Lee, P. H. Y., Barter, J. D., Beach, K. L., Lake,
B. M., Rungaldier, H., Thompson, H. R., Yee,
R. (1998)
Scattering from breaking gravity waves without
wind.
*IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, ***46,
**1, (1998), 14 26.

[Lee99] Lee, P. H. Y., Barter, J. D., Beach, K. L., Lake,
B. M., Rungaldier, H., Thompson, H. R., Wang,
L., Yee, R. (1998)
What are the mechanisms for non-Bragg
scattering from water wave surfaces?
*Radio Science, ***34, **1 (Jan. Feb. 1998), 123 138.

[Leu94] Leung, H., Haykin, S.( 1994)
Detection and estimation using an adaptive
rational transfer function filter.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***42, **12
(Dec. 1994), 3366 3376.

[Leu96a] Leung, H. (1996)
Nonlinear clutter cancellation and detection
using a memory-based predictor.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***32, **4 (Oct. 1996), 1249 1256.

[Leu96b] Leung, H., Huang, X. (1996)
Parameter estimation in chaotic noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **10
(Oct. 1996), 2456 2463.

[Lev88a] Levanon, N. (1988)
*Radar Principles.
*New York: Wiley, 1988.

[Lev88b] Levanon, N. (1988)
Detection loss due to interfering targets in
ordered statistic CFAR.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***24, **(Nov. 1988), 678 681.

[Lev90] Levanon, N., Shor, M. (1990)
Order statistic CFAR for Weibull background.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **137, **3 (June 1990),
157 162.
[Lew80] Lewis, B. L., Olin, I. O.( 1980)
Experimental study an theoretical model of
high-resolution radar backscatter from the sea.
*Radio Science, ***15, **4 (1980), 815 828.

[Li89] Li, N. J.( 1989)
A study of land clutter spectrum.
In *Proceedings of the 1989 International
Symposium on Noise and Clutter Rejection in
Radars and Imaging Sensors, *T. Suzuki, H.
Ogura, and S. Fujimura (Eds.), Kyoto, Japan,
1989, 48 53.

[Li96a] Li, J., Zelnio, E. G. (1996)
Target detection with synthetic aperture radar.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***32, **2 (Apr. 1996), 613 627.

[Li96b] Li, J., Stoica, P. (1996)
Efficient mixed-spectrum estimation with
applications to target feature extraction.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **2
(Feb. 1996), 281 295.

[Lig89] Li, G., Yu, K.-B. (1989)
Modelling and simulation of coherent Weibull
clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **136, **1 (1989), 2 12.

[Lih98] Li, H. T., Djuric, P. M. (1998)
MMSE estimation of nonlinear parameters of
multiple linear/ quadratic chirps.
*Transactions on Signal Processing, ***46,3 **(Mar.
1998), 796 800.

[Lin99] Lin, X., Blum, R. S. (1999)
Robust STAP algorithms using prior knowledge
for airborne radar applications.
*Signal Processing, ***79, **(Dec. 1999), 273 287.

[Liu82] Liu, B., Munson, D. (1982)
Generation of a random sequence having a
jointly specified marginal distribution and
autocovariance function.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech, and
Signal Processing, ***ASSP-6, **2 (1982), 973 983.

[Lom94] Lombardo, P., Oliver, C. J. (1994)
Estimation of texture parameters in
K-distributed clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **141, **4 (Aug. 1994),
196 204.
[Lom95a] Lombardo, P., Oliver, C. J., Tough, R. J. A.
(1995)
The effect of noise on order parameter
estimation for K-distributed clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **142,1 **(Feb. 1995), 33 40.

348 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
20

20
** Page 21**
22

[Lom95b] Lombardini, F., Gini, F., Verrazzani, L. (1995)
A new monoparametric CFAR detector robust
against spiky clutter.
In *Proceedings of the GRETSI Symposium on
Signal and Image Processing, *Juan-Les-Pins,
France, Sept. 1995.

[Lom95c] Lombardini, F., Gini, F., Verrazzani, L. (1995)
CFAR problems for distributed detection in
non-Gaussian clutter.
In *Proceedings of the 6th International
Conference on Signal Processing Applications
& Technology, *Boston, MA, Oct. 1995.

[Lom96] Lombardo, P., Farina, A. (1996)
Coherent radar detection against K-distributed
clutter with partially correlated texture.
*Signal Processing, ***48, **1( Jan. 1996), 1 16.

[Lom97a] Lombardo, P., Pastina, D., Bucciarelli, T. (1997)
CFAR coherent radar detection against
K-distributed clutter plus thermal noise.
In *Proceedings of the 1998 Radar Conference,
*Houston, TX, 1998.

[Lom97b] Lombardo, P., Pastina, D., Bucciarelli, T. (1997)
A multiband GLRT-LQ algorithm for
the coherent radar detection against
compound-Gaussian clutter.
In *Proceedings of the IEE International Radar
Conference, *Edinburgh, UK, Oct. 1997,
576 580.

[Lom99a] Lombardo, P., Billingsley, J. B. (1999)
A new model for the Doppler spectrum of
windblown radar ground clutter.
In *Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE Radar
Conference, *Boston, MA, Apr. 1999, 142 147.

[Lom99b] Lombardo, P., Pastina, D. (1999)
Multiband coherent radar detection against
compound-Gaussian clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **4 (Oct. 1999), 1266 1282.

[Lon74] Long, M. W. (1974)
On a two-scatterer theory of sea echo.
*IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation,
***AP-22, **(1974), 667 672.

[Lon83] Long, M. W. (1983)
*Radar Reflectivity of Land and Sea *(2nd ed.).
Boston, MA: Artech House, 1983.

[Lon90] Longo, M., Lookabaugh, T. D., Gray, R. M.
(1990)
Quantization for decentralized hypothesis
testing under communication constraints.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***36,
**(Mar. 1990), 241 255.

[Lon96] Longo, M., Lops, M. (1996)
OS-CFAR thresholding in decentralized radar
systems.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***32, **4 (Oct. 1996), 1257 1267.

[Lop89] Lops, M., Orsini, M. (1989)
Scan-by-scan averaging CFAR.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **136, **6 (Dec. 1989),
249 254.

[Lop94] Lops, M., Willett, P. (1994)
Ll-CFAR: A flexible and robust alternative.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30,1 **(Jan. 1994).

[Lop96] Lops, M. (1996)
Hybrid clutter-map/ L-CFAR procedure
for clutter rejection in nonhomogeneous
environment.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **143, **(Aug. 1996), 239 245.

[Lop97] Lop` es, A., S΄ ery, F. (1997)
Optimal speckle reduction for the product
model in multilook polarimetric SAR imagery
and the Wishart distribution.
*IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing, ***35, **3 (May 1997), 632 647.

[Ma96] Ma, X., Nikias, C. L. (1996)
Joint estimation of time delay and frequency
delay in impulsive noise using fractional lower
order statistics.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **11
(Nov. 1996) 2669 2687.

[Mar84] Martinez, A. B., Swaszek, P. F., Thomas, J. B.
(1984)
Locally optimum detection in multivariate
non-Gaussian noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***30, **6
(1984), 815 822.

[Mar90] Martin, J., Mulgrew, B. (1990)
Analysis of the theoretical radar return signal
from aircraft propeller blades.
In *Proceedings of the IEEE International Radar
Conference, *Washington, DC, May 1990,
569 572.
[Mar92] Martin, J., Mulgrew, B. (1992)
Analysis of the effects of blade pitch on the
radar return signal from rotating aircraft blades.
In *Proceedings of the IEE International Radar
Conference, *Brighton, UK, 1992, 446 449.

[Mar95] Marier, L. J. (1995)
Correlated K-distributed clutter generation for
radar detection and track.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **2 (Apr. 1995), 568 580.

[Mat98] Mathur, A., Willett, P. K. (1998)
Local SNR considerations in decentralized
CFAR detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***34,1 **(Jan. 1998), 13 22.

[McD97] McDonald, K. F., Blum, R. S. (1997)
A physically-based impulsive noise model for
array observations.
Presented at the *Thirty-First Asilomar
Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers,
*Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove,
CA, Nov. 2 5, 1997.

[McD99] McDonald, K. F., Blum, R. S. (1999)
Analytical analysis of STAP algorithms for
cases with mismatched steering and clutter
statistics.
In *Proceedings of the 1999 Radar Conference,
*Waltham, MA, Apr. 20 22, 1999, 267 272.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 349
21

21
** Page 22**
23

[McD00a] McDonald, K. F., Blum, R. S. (2000)
A physically-based impulsive noise model for
array observations.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***48, **7
(July 2000), 2044 2056.

[McD00b] McDonald, K. F., Blum, R. S. (2000)
Exact performance of STAP algorithms with
mismatched steering and clutter statistics.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***48, **10
(Oct. 2000), 2750 2763.

[McD00c] McDonald, K. F., Blum, R. S. (2000)
Performance characterization of STAP
algorithms with mismatched steering and clutter
statistics.
In *Proceedings of the Thirty-Fourth Asilomar
Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers,
*Pacific Grove, CA, Oct. 29 Nov. 1, 2000.
[McW96] McWhorter, L. T., Scharf, L. L., Griffiths, L. J.
(1996)
Adaptive coherence estimation for radar signal
processing.
In *Proceedings of the 30th Asilomar Conference
on Signals, Systems, and Computers, *Pacific
Grove, CA, Nov. 1996, 536 540.
[Met85] Metford, P. A. S., Haykin, S.( 1985)
Experimental analysis of an innovations-based
detection algorithm for surveillance radar.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **132, **1 (Feb. 1985), 18 26.

[Mic96] Michels, J. H. (1996) Covariance matrix estimator performance in non-Gaussian spherically invariant random processes. Technical report RL-TR 96 4, Rome Laboratory, Rome, New York, Jan. 1996.

[Mic97] Michels, J. H. (1997)
Covariance matrix estimator performance in
non-Gaussian clutter processes.
In *Proceedings of the National Radar
Conference, *Syracuse, NY, May 1997, 309 313.

[Min90] Minkler, G., Minkler, J. (1990)
*CFAR The Principles of Automatic Radar
Detection in Clutter.
*Magellan Book Company, 1990.

[Mis97] Misiurewicz, J., Kulpa, K., Czekala, Z. (1997)
Analysis of recorded helicopter echo.
In *Proceedings of the International Radar
Conference, *Edinburgh, Scotland, Oct. 1997,
449 453.
[Moo85] Moore, R. K. (1985)
Radar sensing of the ocean.
*IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, ***10, **2
(Apr. 1985), 84 112.

[Mou96] Moulines, E. Choukri, K. (1996)
Time-domain procedures for testing that a
stationary time-series is Gaussian.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **8
(Aug. 1996), 2010 2025.

[Nag95] Nagle, D. T., Saniie, J.( 1995)
Performance analysis of linearly combined
order statistic CFAR detectors.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **2 (Apr. 1995), 522 533.

[Nag96] Nagesha, V., Kay, S. (1996)
Maximum likelihood estimation for array
processing in colored noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **2
(Oct. 1996), 169 180.

[Nar94] Narayanan, R. M., Doerr, D. W., Rundquist,
D. C. (1994)
Power spectrum of wind-influenced vegetation
backscatter at X-band.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **141, **2 (Apr. 1994),
125 131.
[Nay96] Nayebi, M. M., Aref, M. R., Bastani, M. H.
(1996)
Detection for coherent radar signals with
unknown Doppler shift.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **143, **2, (Apr. 1996), 79 86.

[Nes96] Nesti, G., Fortuny, J., Sieber, A. J. (1996)
Comparison of backscattered signal statistics
as derived from indoor scatterometric and SAR
experiments.
*IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing, ***34, **5 (Sept. 1996), 1074 1083.

[Nez96] Nezry, E., Lop΄ es, A., Ducrot-Gambert, D.,
Nezry, C., Lee, J.-S.( 1996)
Supervised classification of K-distributed SAR
images of natural targets and probability of
error estimation.
*IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing, ***34, **5 (Sept. 1996), 1233 1242.

[Nik93] Nikias, C. L., Petropulu, A. P. (1993)
*Higher Order Spectra Analysis: A Nonlinear
Signal Processing Framework.
*Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993.

[Nit80] Nitzberg, R. (1980)
Application of maximum likelihood estimation
of persymmetric covariance matrices to adaptive
processing.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-16, **(Jan. 1980), 124 127.

[Nit84] Nitzberg, R. (1984)
Detection loss of the sample matrix inversion
technique.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-20, **6( Nov. 1984), 824 827.

[Nit86] Nitzberg, R. (1986)
Clutter map CFAR analysis.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-22, **4 (July 1986), 419 421.

[Nit90] Nitzberg, R. (1990)
Range-heterogeneous clutter on adaptive
Doppler filters.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***26, **3 (May 1990), 475 480.

[Noh91] Nohara, T. J., Haykin, S. (1991)
Canadian east coast radar trials and the
K-distribution.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **138, **(Apr. 1991), 80 88.

[Noh93] Nohara, T. J., Haykin, S. (1993)
AR-based growler detection in sea clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***41, **3
(Mar. 1993), 1259 1271.

350 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
22

22
** Page 23**
24

[Noh94a] Nohara, T. J., Haykin, S. (1994)
Growler detection in sea clutter with coherent
radars.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **3 (July 1994), 836 847.

[Noh94b] Nohara, T. J., Haykin, S. (1994)
Growler detection in sea clutter using Gaussian
spectrum models.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **141, **5 (Oct. 1994),
285 292.

[Noh98] Nohara, T. J. (1998)
Design of a space-based radar signal processor.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***34, **2 (Apr. 1998), 366 377.

[Oli82] Olin, I. D. (1982)
Amplitude and temporal statistics of sea clutter.
In *Proceedings of the IEE Conference on Radar,
*London, 1982.

[Oli84] Oliver, C. J. (1984)
A model for non-Rayleigh scattering statistics.
*Opical Acta, ***31, **(1984), 701 722.

[Oli85] Oliver, C. J. (1985)
Correlated K-distributed clutter models.
*Optical Acta, ***32, **(1985), 1515 1547.

[Oli86] Oliver, C. J. (1986)
The interpretation and simulation of clutter
textures in coherent images.
*Inverse Problems, *2 (1986), 481 518.

[Oli88] Oliver, C. J. (1988)
Representation of radar sea clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **135, **6 (Dec. 1988),
497 500.

[Ott95] Ott, R. H., Pollock, M. A., Dinger, R. J., Tice,
T. E. (1995)
VHF radar sea scatter and propagation at
grazing angles less than 1.
*Radio Science, ***30, **2 (Mar. Apr. 1995),
361 370.

[Ozg92] Ozgunes, I., Gandhi, P. P., Kassam, A. (1992)
A variably trimmed mean CFAR radar detector.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***28, **4 (Oct. 1992), 1002 1014.

[Ozt96] Ozturk, A., Chakravarthi, P. R., Weiner, D. D.
(1996)
On determining the radar threshold for
non-Gaussian processes from experimental data.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***42, **4
(July 1996), 1310 1316.

[Pac94] Pace, P. E., Taylor, L. L. (1994)
False alarm analysis of the envelope detection
GO-CFAR processor.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **3 (July 1994), 848 864.

[Pal96] Palumbo, S., Barbarossa, S., Farina, A., Toma,
M. R. (1996)
Classification techniques of radar signals
backscattered by helicopter blades.
In *Proceedings of the International Symposium
on Digital Signal Processing, *London, July
1996.

[Pap95] Papastavrou, J. D., Athans, M. (1995)
The team ROCcurve inabinaryhypothesis
testing environment.
*IEEE Transactions Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **(1995), 96 105.

[Pee71] Peebles, P. Z. (1971)
The generation of correlated log-normal clutter
for radar simulations.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-7, **6 (Nov. 1971), 1215 1217.

[Pel91a] Peleg, S., Porat, B. (1991)
Linear FM signal parameter estimation from
discrete-time observations.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **3 (July 1991), 607 615.

[Pel91b] Peleg, S., Porat, B. (1991)
Estimation and classification of signals with
polynomial phase.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***37, **3
(Mar. 1991), 422 430.
[Pet88] Peterson, S. R., Lee, Y. H., Kassam, S. A.
(1988)
Some statistical properties of alpha-trimmed
mean and standard type M filters.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and
Signal Processing, ***36, **(May 1988), 707 713.

[Phi88] Phillips, O. M. (1988)
Radar returns from sea surfaces-Bragg
scattering and breaking waves.
*Journal Phys. Ocean, ***18, **(1988), 1065 1074.

[Pic70] Picinbono, B. (1970)
Spherically invariant and compound Gaussian
stochastic process.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-16,
**(Jan. 1970), 77 79.
[Pic86] Picinbono, B., Duvaut, P. (1986)
Detection and contrast.
In C. Baker (Ed.), *Stochastic Processes in
Underwater Acoustics.
*New York: Springer Verlag, 1986, 181 203.

[Pic87] Picardi, G., Seu, R., Zei, D.
Log-normal clutter cancellation.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **134,1 **(Feb. 1987), 35 42.

[Pic88] Picinbono, B., Duvaut, P. (1988)
Optimal linear-quadratic systems for detection
and estimation.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***34, **2
(Feb. 1988), 304 311.
[Pid68] Pidgeon, V. W. (1968)
Doppler dependence of radar sea return.
*Journal of Geophysical Research, ***73 **(1968),
1333 1341. [Pie96] Pierce, R. D. (1996)

RCS characterization using the alpha-stable
distribution.
In *Proceedings of the IEEE National Radar
Conference, *Ann Arbor, MI, May 1996.

[Pla83] Plant, W. J., Keller, W. C. (1983)
The two-scale radar wave probe and SAR
imagery of the ocean.
*Journal of Geophysical Research, ***88, **C14( Nov.
1983), 9776 9784.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 351
23

23
** Page 24**
25

[Pla90] Plant, W. J., Keller, W. C. (1990)
Evidence of Bragg scattering in microwave
Doppler spectra of sea return.
*Journal of Geophysical Research, ***95, **C9 (Sept.
15, 1990), 16299 16310.

[Pla97] Plant, W. J. (1997)
A model for microwave Doppler sea return at
high incidence angles: Bragg scattering from
bound, tilted waves.
*Journal of Geophysical Research, ***102, **C9
(1997), 21131 21146.

[Poo88] Poor, H. V. (1988)
*An Introduction to Signal Detection and
Estimation.
*New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988.

[Por94] Porat, B. (1994)
*Digital Processing of Random Signals, Theory &
Methods.
*Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994.

[Pos93] Posner, F. L. (1993)
Texture and speckle in high resolution synthetic
aperture radar clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing, ***31, **1 (Jan. 1993), 192 203.

[Pos98a] Posner, F. L.( 1998)
Spiky sea clutter at low grazing angles and high
range resolutions.
In *Proceedings of the IEEE Radar Conference,
*(1998), 405 410.

[Pos98b] Posner, F. L.( 1998) Experimental observations at very low grazing angles of high resolution microwave backscatter from the sea. Report NRL/ MR/ 5310 98 832, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, Dec. 1998.

[Pul99] Pulsone, N. B., Raghavan, R. S. (1999)
Analysis of an adaptive CFAR detector in
non-Gaussian interference.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **3 (Mar. 1999), 903 916.

[Pul00] Pulsone, N. B., Zatman, M. A. (2000)
A computationally efficient two-step
implementation of the GLRT.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***48, **3
(Mar. 2000), 609 616.

[Rab99] Rabideau, D. J., Steinhardt, A. O. (1999)
Improved adaptive clutter cancellation through
data-adaptive.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **3 (Mar. 1999), 879 891.

[Rag91a] Raghavan, R. S. (1991)
A method for estimating parameters of
K-distributed clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **2 (Mar. 1991), 238 246.

[Rag91b] Raghavan, R. S. (1991)
A model for spatially correlated radar clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **2 (Mar. 1991), 268 275.

[Rag92] Raghavan, R. S. (1992)
Analysis CA-CFAR processors for linear-law
detections.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***28, **3 (July 1992), 661 665.

[Rag95] Raghavan, R. S., Qiu, H. E., McLaughlin, D. J.
(1995)
CFAR detection in clutter with unknown
correlation properties.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **2 (Apr. 1995), 647 656.

[Rag96a] Raghavan, R. S., Pulsone, N., McLaughlin,
D. J. (1996)
Performance of the GLRT for adaptive vector
subspace detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***32, **4 (Oct. 1996), 1473 1487.

[Rag96b] Rago, C., Willett, P., Bar-Shalom, Y. (1996)
Censoring sensors: A low-communication-rate
scheme for distributed detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***32, **2 (Apr. 1996), 554 568.

[Rag99] Rago, C., Willett, P., Alford, M. (1999)
Predetection fusion: Resolution cell grid effects.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **3 (July 1999), 778 788.

[Raj95] Rajalakshmi Menon, K., Balakrishnan, N.,
Janakiraman, M., Ramchand, K. (1995)
Characterization of fluctuating statistics of radar
clutter for Indian terrain.
*IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing, ***33, **2 (Mar. 1995), 317 323.

[Ran92] Rangaswamy, M., Weiner, D. D., Michels, J. H.
(1992)
Innovations based detection algorithm for
correlated non-Gaussian random processes.
In *Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Statistical
Signal and Array Processing, *Victoria, British
Columbia, Canada, Oct., 1992.

[Ran93] Rangaswamy, M., Weiner, D. D., Ozturk, A.
(1993)
Non-Gaussian vector identification using
spherically invariant random processes.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***29, **1 (Jan. 1993), 111 124.

[Ran95a] Rangaswamy, M., Weiner, D. D., Ozturk, A.
(1995)
Computer generation of correlated
non-Gaussian radar clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **1 (Jan. 1995), 106 115.

[Ran95b] Rangaswamy, M., Michels, J. H., Weiner, D. D.
(1995)
Multichannel detection algorithm for correlated
non-Gaussian random processes based on
innovations.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***43, **8
(Aug. 1995), 1915 1922.

352 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
24

24
** Page 25**
26

[Ran97] Rangaswamy, M., Michels, J. H. (1997)
A parametric multichannel detection for
correlated non-Gaussian random processes.
In *Proceedings of the National Radar
Conference, *Syracuse, NY, May 1997, 349 354.

[Ran99] Rangaswamy, M., Michels, J. H.
A parametric detection algorithm for space-time
adaptive processing in non-Gaussian radar
clutter.
*Signal Processing, *to be published.

[Rao97] Rao, N. S. V.( 1997)
Distribution decision fusion using empirical
estimation.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **4 (Oct. 1997), 1106 1114.

[Rav92] Ravid, R., Levanon, N. (1992)
Maximum likelihood CFAR for Weibull
background.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **139, **3 (June 1992),
256 264.

[Ree74] Reed, I. S., Mallet, J. D., Brennan, L. E. (1974)
Rapid convergence rate in adaptive arrays.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-10, **(Nov. 1974), 885 863.

[Ree90] Reed, I. S., Yu, X. (1990)
Adaptive multiple-band CFAR detection of
an optical pattern with unknown spectral
distribution.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech
and Signal Processing, ***38, **10 (Oct. 1990),
1760 1770.

[Ree98] Reed, I. S., Gau, Y. L., Truong, T. K. (1998)
CFAR detection and estimation for STAP radar.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***34, **3 (July 1998), 722 735.

[Ree99] Reed, I. S., Gau, Y. L.( 1999)
A fast CFAR detection space-time adaptive
processing.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***47, **4
(Apr. 1999), 1151 1154.

[Rei87a] Reibman, A. R., Nolte, L. W. (1987)
Optimal detection and performance of
distributed sensor systems.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-23, **1 (Jan. 1987), 789 797.

[Rei87b] Reibman, A. R., Nolte, L. W. (1987)
Design and performance comparison of
distributed detection networks.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-23, **6 (Nov. 1987), 789 797.

[Reu97] Reuven, I., Messer, H. (1997)
A Barankin-type lower bound on the estimation
error of ahybridparameter vector.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***43,
**(May 1997), 1084 1093.

[Ric77] Rickard, J. T.( 1977)
Adaptive detection algorithms for
multiple-target.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-13, **4 (July 1977), 338 343.

[Ric96a] Richmond, C. D. (1996) Adaptive array signal processing and performance analysis in non-Gaussian environments. Ph. D. dissertation, Mass. Inst. Tech., Cambridge, MA, May 1996.

[Ric96b] Richmond, C. D. (1996)
Derived PDF of maximum likelihood signal
estimator which employs an estimated noise
covariance.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **2
(Feb. 1996), 305 315.

[Ric96c] Richmond, C. D. (1996)
PDFs, confidence regions, and relevant statistics
for a class of sample covariance-based array
processors.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **7
(July 1996), 1779 1793.

[Ric96d] Richmond, C. D. (1996)
A note on non-Gaussian adaptive array
detection and signal parameter estimation.
*IEEE Signal Processing Letters, ***3, **(Aug. 1996),
251 252.

[Ric00a] Richmond, C. D. (2000)
Performance of the adaptive sidelobe
blanker detection algorithm in homogeneous
environments.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***48, **5
(May 2000), 1235 1247.

[Ric00b] Richmond, C. D. (2000)
Performance of a class of adaptive detection
algorithms in non-homogeneous environment.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***48, **5
(May 2000), 1248 1262.

[Ric00c] Richmond, C. D. (2000)
Statistics of adaptive nulling and use of the
generalized eigenrelation (GER) for modeling
inhomogeneities in adaptive processing.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***48, **5
(May 2000), 1263 1273.

[Rif74] Rife, D. C., Boorstyn, R. R. (1974)
Single-tone parameter estimation from
discrete-time observations.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-20,
**5 (Sept. 1974), 591 598.

[Rif94] Rifkin, R. (1994)
Analysis of CFAR performance in Weibull
clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **2 (Apr. 1994), 315 329.

[Rih85] Rihaczek, A. W. (1985)
*Principles of High-Resolution Radar.
*CA: Peninsula Pub., 1985.

[Rih96] Rihaczek, A. W., Hershkowitz, S. J. (1996)
Man-made target backscattering behavior:
Applicability of conventional radar resolution
theory.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***32, **2 (Apr. 1996), 809 824.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 353
25

25
** Page 26**
27

[Rin97] Rino, C. L., Eckert, E., Siegel, A., Webster, T.,
Ochadlick, A., Rankin, M., Davis, J. (1997)
X-band low-grazing-angle ocean backscatter
obtained during LOGAN 1993.
*IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, ***22, **1
(Jan. 1997), 18 26.

[Rit86] Ritcey, J. A. (1986)
Censored mean-level detector analysis.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-22, **3 (July 1986), 443 454.

[Rit89] Ritcey, J. A., Hines, J. L. (1989)
Performance of the max mean level detectors
with and without censoring.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***25, **2 (Mar. 1989), 213 223.

[Rit91] Ritcey, J. A., Hines, J. L. (1991)
Performance of the MAX family of
order-statistic CFAR detectors.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **1 (Jan. 1991), 48 57.

[Rob92] Robey, F. C., Fuhrmann, D. R., Kelly, E. J.,
Nitzberg, R. (1992)
A CFAR adaptive matched filter detector.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***28, **1 (Mar. 1992), 213 223.

[Roh83] Rohling, H. (1983)
Radar CFAR thresholding in clutter and
multiple target situations.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-19, **3 (July 1983), 608 621.

[Rom97] Rom΄ an, J. R., Davis, D. W., Michels, J. H.
(1997)
Multichannel parametric models for airborne
phased array clutter.
In *Proceedings of the National Radar
Conference, *Syracuse, NY, May 1997, 72 77.

[Ros74] Rosenbaum, S., Bowles, L. W. (1974)
Clutter return from vegetated areas.
*IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation,
***AP-22, **2 (Mar. 1974), 227 236.

[Roz96] Rozenberg, A. D., Quigley, D. C., Melvill,
W. K. (1996)
Laboratory study of polarized microwave
scattering by surface waves at grazing
incidence: The influence of long waves.
*IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing, ***34, **6 (Nov. 1996), 1331 1342.

[Rze96] Rzemien, R. (1996)
Coherent radar Opportunities and demands.
*Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory
Techni cal Di ge s t *, **17, **4 (1996), 386 400.

[Sad94] Sadler, B. M., Giannakis, G. B., Lii, K. S.
(1994)
Estimation and detection in non-Gaussian noise
using higher order statistics.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***42, **10
(Oct. 1994), 2729 2741.

[Sad95] Sadler, B. M., Giannakis, G. B., Shamsunder, S.
(1995)
Noise subspace techniques in non-Gaussian
noise using higher order statistics.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **3 (July 1995), 1009 1019.

[Sad96] Sadler, B. (1996)
Detection in correlated impulsive noise using
fourth-order cumulants.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **11
(Nov. 1996), 2793 2800.
[Sad99] Sadler, B. M., Kozick, R. J., Moore, T. (1999)
Performance analysis for direction finding in
non-Gaussian noise.
Presented at the *International Conference
on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing
*(ICASSP'99), Pheonix, AZ, 1999.
[San88] Sangston, K. J. (1988)
Coherent detection of radar targets in
K-distributed, correlated clutter.
Report 9130, Naval Research Laboratory,
Washington, DC, 1988.

[San89a] Sangston, K. J., Cantrell, B. H. (1989) On the problem of optimal signal detection in discrete-time, correlated, non-Gaussian noise. Report 9177, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, Feb. 1989.

[San89b] Sangston, K. J., Gerlach, K. (1989) Results on the detection of signals in spherically invariant random noise. Report 9202, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, Nov. 1989.

[San92] Sangston, K. J., Gerlach, K. R. (1992) Non-Gaussian noise models and coherent detection of radar targets. Report 9367, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1992.

[San94] Sangston, K. J., Gerlach, K. R. (1994)
Coherent detection of radar targets in a
non-Gaussian background.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **2 (Apr. 1994), 330 340.

[San99] Sangston, K. J., Gini, F., Greco, M. V., Farina,
A. (1999)
Structures for radar detection in compound
Gaussian clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **2 (Apr. 1999), 445 458.

[Sch69] Schwartz, R. E. (1969)
Minimax CFAR detection in additive Gaussian
noise of unknown covariance.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-15,
**4 (July 1969), 722 725.

[Sch71] Scharf, L., Lytle, D. W.( 1971)
Signal detection in Gaussian noise of unknown
level: An invariance application.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-17,
**3 (July 1971), 404 411.
[Sch73] Scharf, L. (1973)
Invariant Gauss-Gauss detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-19,
**3 (July 1973), 422 427.

354 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
26

26
** Page 27**
28

[Sch75] Schwartz, S. C. (1975)
Conditional mean estimates and Bayesian
hypothesis testing.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-21,
**6 (1975), 663 665.

[Sch76] Schleher, D. C. (1976)
Radar detection in Weibull clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-12, **6 (Nov. 1976), 736 743.

[Sch83] Schmieder, D. E., Weathersby, M. R. (1983)
Detection performance in clutter with variable
resolution.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-19, **4 (July 1983), 622 630.

[Sch91a] Schleher, D. C. (1991)
*MTI and Pulsed Doppler Radar.
*Boston, MA.: Artech House, 1991.

[Sch91b] Scharf, L. L. (1991)
*Statistical Signal Processing: Detection,
Estimation, and Time Series Analysis.
*Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1991.

[Sch94] Scharf, L., Friedlander, B. (1994)
Matched subspace detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***42,
**(Aug. 1994), 2146 2157.

[Sch96] Scharf, L. L., McWhorter, L. T. (1996)
Adaptive matched subspace detectors and
adaptive coherence estimators.
In *Proceedings of the 30th Asilomar Conference
on Signals, Systems, and Computers, *Pacific
Grove, CA, Nov. 1996, 1114 1117.

[Sch97] Schultz, T. J. (1997)
Penalized maximum-likelihood estimation of
covariance matrices with linear structure.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***45, **12
(Dec. 1997), 3027 3038.

[Sek78] Sekine, S., Musha, T., Tomita, Y., Irabu, T.
(1978)
Suppression of Weibull-distributed clutter using
a cell-averaging LOG/ CFAR receiver.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-14, **(Sept. 1978), 823 826.

[Sek81a] Sekine, S., Ohtani, S., Musha, T., Irabu, T.,
Kiuchi, E., Hagisawa, T., Tomita, Y. (1981)
Suppression of ground and weather clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **128, **3 (June 1981),
175 178.
[Sek81b] Sekine, S., Ohtani, S., Musha, T., Irabu, T.,
Kiuchi, E., Hagisawa, T., Tomita, Y. (1981)
Weibull distributed ground clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-17, **4 (July 1981), 596 598.

[Sek84] Sekine, S., Musha, T., Tomita, Y., Hagisawa, T.,
Irabu, T., Kiuchi, E. (1984)
Weibull-distributed weather clutter in the
frequency domain.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **131, **5 (Aug. 1984),
549 552.
[Sek90] Sekine, M., Mao, Y. (1990)
*Weibull Radar Clutter.
*London: Peter Peregrinus Ltd., 1990.

[Sel65] Selin, I. (1965)
Detection of coherent radar returns of unknown
Doppler shift.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-11,
**(July 1965), 396 400.
[Sen90] Sengupta, D., Kay, S. M. (1990)
Parameter estimation and GLRT detection in
colored non-Gaussian autoregressive processes.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech
and Signal Processing, ***38, **10 (Oct. 1990),
1661 1676. [Sen91] Kay, S. M., Sengupta, D. (1991)

Recent advances in non-Gaussian autoregressive
processes.
In S. Haykin (Ed.), *Advances in Spectrum
Analysis and Array Processing.
*Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991.
[Sha95] Shamsunder, S., Giannakis, G. B., Friedlander,
B. (1995)
Estimating random amplitude polynomial phase
signals: A cyclostationary approach.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***43,
**(Feb. 1995), 492 505.
[She98] Sheikhi, A., Nayebi, M. M., Aref, M. R. (1989)
Adaptive detection algorithm for radar signals
in autoregressive interference.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **145,5 **(Oct. 1998),
309 314. [Shn91] Shnidman, D. A. (1991)

Calculation of probability of detection for
log-normal target fluctuation.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **1 (Jan. 1991), 172 174.
[Shn95] Shnidman, D. A. (1995)
Radar detection probabilities and their
calculation.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **3 (July 1995), 928 950.
[Shn98] Shnidman, D. A. (1998)
Binary integration for Swerling target
fluctuations.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***34, **3 (July 1998), 1043 1053.
[Shn99] Shnidman, D. A. (1999)
Generalized radar clutter model.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35, **3 (July 1999), 857 865.
[Sho91] Shor, M., Levanon, N. (1991)
Performance of order statistics CFAR.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **2 (Mar. 1991), 214 224.
[Sle94a] Sletten, M. A., Trizna, D. B. (1994)
An ultrawideband, polarimetric radar for the
study of sea scatter.
*IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, ***42,
**11 (1994), 1461 1466.
[Sle94b] Sletten, M. A., Wu, J. (1994)
Ultrawideband, polarimetric radar studies of
breaking waves at low grazing angles.
*Radio Science, ***31, **1 (1996), 181 192.
[Sko90] Skolnik, M. I. (1990)
*Radar Handbook,( *2nd ed.).
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 355
27

27
** Page 28**
29

[Sri86a] Srinivasan, R. (1986)
Distributed radar detection theory.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **133, **(Feb. 1986), 55 60.

[Sri86b] Srinivasan, R., Sharma, P., Malik, V. (1986)
Distributed detection of Swerling targets.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **133, **7 (Dec. 1986),
624 629.

[Sri90] Srinivasan, R. (1990)
Distributed detection with decision feedback.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **137, **6 (1990), 427 432.

[Sri93] Srinivasan, R. (1993)
Designing distributed detection systems.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **140, **3 (June 1993),
191 197.

[Ste68] Steenson, B. O. (1968)
Detection performance of a mean level
thresholds.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-4, **4 (July 1968), 529 534.

[Ste91] Stehwien, W., Haykin, S. (1991)
Classification of radar clutter.
In S. Haykin (Ed.), *Advances in Spectrum
Analysis and Array Processing.
*Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991.

[Sto89a] Stoica, P., Moses, R., Friedlander, B.,
S¨ oderstr¨ om, T.( 1989)
Maximum likelihood estimation of the
parameters of multiple sinusoids from noisy
measurements.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech and
Signal Processing, ***37, **3 (Mar. 1989), 378 392.

[Sto89b] Stoica, P., Nehorai, A. (1989)
MUSIC, maximum likelihood, and Cram΄ er-Rao
bound.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech and
Signal Processing, ***37, **5 (May 1989), 720 741.

[Sto97a] Stoica, P., Moses, R. (1997)
*Introduction to Spectral Analysis.
*Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.

[Sto97b] Stoica, P., Jakobsson, A., Li, J. (1997)
Cisoid parameter estimation in the colored noise
case: Asymptotic Cram΄ er-Rao bound, maximum
likelihood and nonlinear least-squares.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***45, **8
(Aug. 1997), 2048 2059.

[Sto97c] Stoica, P., Nordsj ¨ o, A. E. (1997)
Subspace-based frequency estimation in the
presence of moving-average noise using
decimation.
*Signal Processing, ***63, **(1997), 211 220.

[Sto97d] Stoica, P., Cedervall, M. (1997)
Detection tests for array processing in unknown
correlated noise fields.
*Transactions on Signal Processing, ***45, **9( Sept.
1997), 2351 2362.

[Sto00] Stoica, P., Li, H., Li, J. (2000)
Amplitude estimation of sinusoidal signals:
survey, new results, and an application.
*Transactions on Signal Processing, ***48, **2( Feb.
2000), 338 352.

[Swa95] Swaszek, P. F., Willett, P. (1995)
Parley approach to distributed detection.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***31, **1 (Jan. 1995), 447 457.
[Swa97] Swami, A., Sadler, B. M.( 1997)
TDE, DOA, and related parameter estimation
problems in impulsive noise.
In *Proceedings of IEEE Signal Processing
Workshop on Higher Order Statistics, *Banff,
Canada, July 1997, 273 277.
[Swa98] Swami, A., Sadler, B. (1998)
Parameter estimation for linear alpha-stable
processes.
*IEEE Signal Processing Letters, ***5,2 **(Feb.
1998), 48 50.
[Swe97] Swerling, P. (1997)
Radar probability of detection for some
additional fluctuating target cases.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **2 (Apr. 1997), 698 709.
[Swi98] Swindlehurst, A. L., Stoica, P. (1998)
Maximum likelihood methods in radar array
signal processing.
*Proceedings of the IEEE, ***86, **2 (Feb. 1998),
421 441. [Sza76] Szajnowski, W. J. (1976)

Generation of correlated log-normal clutter
samples.
*Electronics Letters, ***12, **19 (Sept. 1976),
497 498. [Sza77] Szajnowski, W. J. (1977)

The generation of correlated Weibull clutter for
signal detection problems.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-13, **5 (Sept. 1977), 536 540.
[Tan93] Tang, Z.-B., Pattipati, K. R., Kleinman, D. L.
(1993)
Optimization of detection networks: Part II
Tree structures.
*IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and
Cybernetics, ***23, **1 (Jan./ Feb. 1993), 211 221.
[Tho86] Thomas, P., Haykin, S. (1986)
Stochastic modelling of radar returns.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **133, **5 (Aug. 1986),
476 481. [Tho87] Thomopoulos, S. C. A., Viswanathan, R.,

Bougoulias, D. K. (1987)
Optimal decision fusion in multiple sensor
systems.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-23, **5 (Sept. 1987), 644 653.
[Tho89] Thomopoulos, S. C. A., Viswanathan, R.,
Bougoulias, D. K. (1989)
Optimal distributed decision fusion.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***25, **5 (Sept. 1989), 761 765.
[Tho91] Thompson, D. R., Gotwols, B. L., Keller, W. C.
(1991)
A comparison of Ku-band doppler
measurements at 20 incidence with predictions
from a time-dependent scattering model.
*Journal of Geophysical Research, ***96, **C3 (Mar.
15, 1991), 4947 4955.

356 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
28

28
** Page 29**
30

[Tho94a] Thompson, D. R., Gotwols, B. L. (1994)
Comparisons of model predictions for radar
backscatter amplitude probability density
functions with measurements from SAXON.
*Journal of Geophysical Research, ***99, **C5 (May
1994), 9725 9739.

[Tho94b] Thompson, M. W., Chang, H-S. (1994)
Coherent detection in Laplace noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **2 (Apr. 1994), 452 461.

[Tho95] Thomopoulos, S. C. A., Okello, N. N. (1995)
Design and experimental validation of a robust
CFAR distributed multifrequency radar data
fusion system.
*SPIE Conference, ***2484, **(1995), 83 10.

[Toe92] Toernig, J. P., Lacomme, P., Guillemain, P.
(1992)
Utilisation de la transformee en ondelettes dans
une radar aeroporte MFR, pour l'identification
d'helicopter.
*Conference sur l'ondelett1es, *Toulose, June
1992.
[Tri85] Trizna, D. B. (1985)
A model for Doppler peak spectral shift for low
grazing angle sea scatter.
*IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, ***OE-10, **4
(Oct. 1985), 368 375.

[Tri91a] Trizna, D. B., Hansen, J. P., Hwang, P., Wu, J.
(1991)
Laboratory studies of radar sea spikes at low
grazing angles.
*Journal Geophysical Research, ***96, **C7 (1991),
12529 12537.
[Tri91b] Trizna, D. B. (1991)
Statistics of low grazing angle radar sea scatter
for moderate and fully developed ocean waves.
*IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation,
***39, **12 (Dec. 1991), 1681 1690.

[Tri97] Trizna, D. B. (1997)
A model for Brewster angle damping and
multipath effects on microwave radar sea echo
at low grazing angles.
*IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing, ***35, **5 (Sept. 1997), 1232 1242.

[Tru70] Trunk, G. V., George, S. F. (1970)
Detection in non-Gaussian sea clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-8, **(1970), 620 628.

[Tru72] Trunk, G. V. (1972)
Radar properties of non-Rayleigh sea clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-8, **(1972), 196 204.

[Tru76] Trunk, G. V. (1976) Non-Rayleigh sea clutter: Properties and detection of targets. Report 7986, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, June 1976.

[Tsa99] Tsakalides, P., Nikias, C. L. (1999)
Robust space-time adaptive processing (STAP)
in non-Gaussian clutter environments.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **146, **2 (Apr. 1999), 84 93.

[Tsi93] Tsitsiklis, J. N. (1993)
Decentralized detection.
In H. V. Poor and J. B. Thomas (Eds.),
*Advances in Statistical Signal Processing, Signal
Detection, ***2, **Greenwich, CT: JAI, 1993.

[Tsi97] Tsihrintzis, G. A., Nikias, C. L. (1997)
Evaluation of fractional, lower-order
statistics-based detection algorithms on real
radar sea-clutter data.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **144,1 **(Feb. 1997), 29 38.

[Tug96] Tugnait, J. K. (1996)
Detection of random signals by integrated
polyspectral analysis.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **8
(Aug. 1996), 2102 2108.

[Une96] ¨ Uner, M. K., Varshney, P. K.( 1996)
Distributed CFAR detection in homogeneous
and nonhomogeneous backgrounds.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***32,1 **(Jan. 1996), 84 97.

[Val71] Valenzuela, G. R., Laing, M. (1971) On the statistics of sea clutter. Report 7349, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, Dec. 1971.

[Van68] Van Trees, H. L. (1968)
*Detection, Estimation and Modulation Theory,
Part I *.
New York: Wiley, 1968.

[Van85] Vannicola, V. C., Hillman, K. G., Simkins,
W. L. (1985)
Detection performance for over resolved targets.
In *Proceedings of AGARD Conference, *No. 381,
Multifunction Radar for Airborne Applications,
1985, 22.

[Van92] Van Trees, H. L. (1992)
*Detection, Estimation and Modulation Theory:
Part III, Radar-Sonar Signal Processing and
Gaussian Signal in Noise.
*New York: Wiley, 1992.

[Var97] Varshney, P. K. (1997)
*Distributed Detection and Data Fusion.
*New York: Springer-Verlag, 1997.

[Vis89] Viswanathan, R., Ansari, A. (1989)
Distributed detection of a signal in generalized
Gaussian noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech and
Signal Processing, ***37, **(May 1989), 775 778.

[Vis97] Viswanathan, R., Varshney, P. K. (1997)
Distributed detection with multiple sensors:
Part I fundamentals.
*Proceedings of the IEEE, ***85, **1( Jan. 1997),
54 63.
[Vor96] Voronovich, A. G. (1996)
On the theory of electromagnetic scattering
from the sea surface at low grazing angles.
*Radio Science, ***31, **(1996), 1516 1530.

[Wal90] Walton, E. K., Jouny, I. (1990)
Bispectral analysis of radar signatures and
application to target classification.
*Radio Science, ***25, **2 (1990), 101 113.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 357
29

29
** Page 30**
31

[Wan90] Wang, H., Cai, L. (1990)
On adaptive multiband signal detection with the
SMI algorithm.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***26, **(1990), 768 773.
[Wan91] Wang, H., Cai, L. (1991)
On adaptive multiband signal detection with
GLRT algorithm.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27, **2 (Apr. 1991), 225 232.
[Wan94] Wang, H., Cai, L. (1994)
On adaptive spatial-temporal processing for
airborne surveillance radar systems.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **3 (July 1994), 660 669.
[War81] Ward, K. D. (1981)
Compound representation of high resolution sea
clutter.
*Electronics Letters, ***17, **6 (1981), 561 563.
[War82] Ward, K. D. (1982)
A radar sea clutter model and its application to
performance assessment.
In *Proceedings of the IEE Conference on Radar,
*London, 1982.
[War85] Ward, K. D., Watts, S. (1985)
Radar sea clutter.
*Microwave Journal, *(June 1985), 109 119
[War90] Ward, K. D., Baker, C. J., Watts, S.( 1990)
Maritime surveillance radar. Part 1: Radar
scattering from the ocean surface.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **137, **(Apr. 1990), 51 62.
[War94] Ward, J. (1994)
Space-time adaptive processing for airborne
radar.
Technical Report TR 1015, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Lincoln Labs,
Cambridge, MA, Dec. 1994.
[Wat85] Watts, S. (1985)
Radar detection prediction in sea clutter using
the compound K-distribution model.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **132, **7 (Dec. 1985),
613 620. [Wat87a] Watts, S. (1987)

Radar detection prediction in K-distributed sea
clutter and thermal noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-23,1 **(Jan. 1987), 40 45.
[Wat87b] Watts, S., Ward, K. D. (1987)
Spatial correlation in K-distributed sea clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **134, **(Oct. 1987), 526 532.
[Wat90] Watts, S., Baker, C. J., Ward, K. D. (1990)
Maritime surveillance radar. Part 2: Detection
performance prediction in sea clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **137, **(Apr. 1990), 63 72.
[Wat91] Watts, S. (Ed.) (1991)
Special Issue on Radar Clutter and Multipath
Propagation.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **138, **(Apr. 1991).
[Wat96] Watts, S. (1996)
Cell averaging CFAR gain in spatially
correlated K-distributed clutter.
*IEE Proceedings, *F, **143, **5 (Oct. 1996),
321 327.

[Web85] Weber, P., Haykin, S.( 1985)
Ordered statistic CFAR processing for
two-parameter distribution with variable
skewness.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-21, **6( Nov. 1985), 819 821.
[Wei82] Weiss, M. (1982)
Analysis of some modified cell-averaging
CFAR processors in multiple-target situations.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-18, **1( Jan. 1982), 102 114.
[Wei91] Weiner, M. A. (1991)
Binary integration of fluctuation targets.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***27,1 **(Jan. 1991), 11 17.
[Wes97a] West, J. C., Sletten, M. A. (1997)
Multipath EM scattering from breaking ocean
waves at grazing incidence.
*Radio Science, ***32, **4 (July-Aug. 1997),
1455 1454. [Wes97b] West, J. C. (1997)

Effect of shadowing on electromagnetic
scattering from rough ocean-wave-like surface
at small grazing angles.
*IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote
Sensing, ***35, **2 (Mar. 1997), 293 301.
[Whi94] White, R. G.( 1994)
A model for MTI radar clutter.
In *Proceedings of the SEE International Radar
Conference, *Paris, France, May 1994, 540 545.
[Wil90] Willett, P., Warren, D. (1990)
The suboptimality of randomized tests in
distributed and quantized detection systems.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***38,
**(1990), 355 366.
[Wil93] Wilson, S. L. (1993)
Two CFAR algorithms for interfering targets
and nonhomogeneous clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***29,1 **(Jan. 1993), 57 72.
[Wil94] Willett, P., Alford, M., Vannicola, V. (1994)
The case for like-sensor predetection fusion.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***30, **4 (Oct. 1994), 986 999.
[Wil99] Willett, P., Chen, B. (1999)
Robust detection of small stochastic signals.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***35,1 **(Jan. 1999), 15 30.
[Wis77] Wise, G. L., Traganitis, A., Thomas, J. (1977)
The effect of a memoryless nonlinearity on the
spectrum of a random process.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-23,
**(1977), 84 89.
[Wis78] Wise, G. L., Gallagher, N. C. (1978)
On spherically invariant random processes.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-24,
**(Jan. 1978), 118 120.
[Won67] Wong, J. L., Reed, I. S., Kaprielian, Z. A.
(1967)
A model for the radar echo from a random
collection of rotating dipole scatterers.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***AES-3, **2,( 1967).

358 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 37, NO. 1 JANUARY 2001
30

30
** Page 31**
32

[Won94] Wong, B. C. Y, Blake, I. F. (1994)
Detection in multivariate non-Gaussian noise.
*IEEE Transactions on Communications, ***42,
**2/ 3/ 4, (Feb./ Mar./ Apr. 1994), 1672 1683.

[Wor68] Worley, R. (1968)
Optimum thresholds for binary integration.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-4,
**(Mar. 1968), 349 353.

[Wri66] Wright, J. W. (1966)
Backscattering from capillary waves with
application to sea clutter.
*IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation,
***AP-14, **6 (Nov. 1966), 749 754.

[XuX97] Xu, X., Huang, P. (1997)
A new RCS statistical model of radar targets.
*IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, ***33, **2 (Apr. 1997), 710 714.

[Yao73] Yao, K. (1973)
A representation theorem and its applications to
spherically-invariant random processes.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ***IT-19,
**5 (Sept. 1973), 600 608.

[Zei96] Zheira, A., Friedlander, B. (1996)
Direction of arrival estimation using parametric
signal modeling.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **2
(Feb. 1996), 339 350.

[Zha92] Zhang, Q. T., Haykin, S. (1992)
Model-based detection.
In S. Haykin, A. Steinhardt (Eds.), *Adaptive
Radar Detection and Estimation.
*New York: Wiley, 1992.

[Zha96] Zhang, Q. T. (1996)
A CFAR processor for the detection of
unknown random signals in nonstationary
correlated noise.
*Signal Processing, ***48, **1( Jan. 1996), 17 26.

[Zha97] Zhang, Q., Mikhael, W. B. (1997)
Estimation of the clutter rank in the case of
subarraying for space-time adaptive processing.
*Electronics Letters, ***33, **5, (Feb. 1997), 419 420.

[Zho94] Zhou, G. T., Giannakis, G. B. (1994)
Parameter estimation of FM signals using cyclic
statistics.
In *Proceedings of the International Symposium
on Time-Frequency and Time-Scale Analysis,
*Philadelphia, PA, Oct. 1994, 248 251.

[Zho95a] Zhou, G. T. (1995)
*Random amplitude and polynomial phase
modeling of nonstationary processes using
higher-order and cyclic statistics.
*Ph. D. dissertation, Department of Electrical
Engineering, Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville,
Jan. 1995.

[Zho95b] Zhou, G. T., Swami, A. (1995)
Performance analysis for a class of amplitude
modulated polynomial phase signals.
In *Proceedings of the International Conference
on Acoustic, Speech, and Signal Processing,
*Detroit, MI, May 1995, 1593 1596.

[Zho95c] Zhou, G. T., Giannakis, G. B. (1995)
Harmonics in Gaussian multiplicative and
additive noise: Cram΄ er-Rao bounds.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***43, **5
(May 1995), 1217 1231.
[Zho95d] Zhou, G. T., Giannakis, G. B. (1995)
Harmonics in multiplicative and additive noise:
Performance analysis of cyclic estimators.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***43, **6
(June 1995), 1445 1460.
[Zho96] Zhou, G. T., Giannakis, G. B., Swami, A.
(1996)
On polynomial phase signals with time-varying
amplitudes.
*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ***44, **4
(Apr. 1996), 848 861.
[Zou96] Zoubir, A. M., Arnold, M. J. (1996)
Testing Gaussianity with the characteristic
function: The i. i. d. case.
*Signal Processing, ***53, **2 3, (Sept. 1996),
245 256.

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES ON RADAR SIGNAL PROCESSING 359
31

31
** Page 32**

32

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

30 31 32